Sunday, May 24, 2020

Oc Eo Funan Culture Port City in Vietnam

Oc Eo, sometimes spelled Oc-Eo or Oc-à ¨o, was a large and thriving port city located in the Mekong Delta on the Gulf of Siam in what is today Vietnam. Established in the first century CE, Oc Eo was a critical node on the international trade system between Malay and China. The Romans knew of Oc Eo, and the geographer Claudius Ptolemy included it on his world map in 150 CE as the Kattigara Emporium. Funan Culture Oc Eo was part of the Funan culture, or Funan empire, a pre-Angkor society based on international trade and sophisticated agriculture built on an extensive network of canals. Trade goods flowing through Oc Eo came from Rome, India, and China. Surviving historical records about Funan and Oc Eo include the Funan cultures own records written in Sanskrit and those of a pair of 3rd century Wu Dynasty Chinese visitors. Kang Dai (Kang Tai) and Zhu Ying (Chu Ying) visited Funan about 245–250 AD, and in the Wou li (Annals of the Wu Kingdom) can be found their report. They described Funan as a sophisticated country of people living in houses raised on stilts and ruled by a king in a walled palace, who controlled trade and managed a successful taxation system. Origin Myth According to a myth reported in Funan and Angkor archives in several different versions, Funan was formed after a female ruler named Liu-ye led a raid against a visiting merchant ship. The attack was beaten off by the ships travelers, one of whom as a man named Kaundinya, from a country beyond the sea. Kaundinya is thought to have been a Brahman from India, and he married the local ruler and together, the two forged a new trading empire. Scholars say that at the time of its founding, the Mekong Delta had several settlements, each of which was independently run by a local chief. Oc Eos excavator, French archaeologist Louis Malleret, reported that in the early first century CE, the Funan coast was occupied by Malay fishing and hunting groups. Those groups were already building their own ships, and they would come to form a new international route focused on the Kra Isthmus. That route would enable them to control the transmission of Indian and Chinese goods back and forth across the region. Funan culture researchers debate how much the establishment of the Funan trade empire was indigenous to the Kra Isthmus or the Indian emigres, but there is no doubt that both elements were important. Importance of the Port of Oc Eo While Oc Eo was never a capital city—the Funan capitals were at Vyadhapura (now Ba Phnom) and Naravaranagara (Angkor Borei)—it served as the primary vital economic engine for the rulers. Between the 2nd and 7th century CE, Oc Eo was the stopover on the trade route between Malaya and China. It was a key manufacturing center for the southeast Asian market, trading in metals, pearls, and perfumes, as well as the cherished Indo-Pacific bead market. Agrarian success followed the establishment of trade, in order to create a surplus of rice for visiting sailors and merchants. Revenues from Oc Eo in the form of user fees for the ports facilities made their way to the royal treasury, and much of that was spent to upgrade the city and build the extensive canal system, making the land more fit for cultivation. The End of Oc Eo Oc Eo thrived for three centuries, but between 480 and 520 CE, there is documented inner conflict accompanying the establishment of an Indic religion. Most damaging, in the 6th century, the Chinese were in control of the maritime trade routes and they shifted that trade away from the Kra peninsula to the Malacca Straits, bypassing the Mekong. Within a short time, the Funan culture lost its main source of economic stability. Funan continued for a while, but the Khmers overran Oc-Eo in the late sixth or early 7th century, and the Angkor civilization was established in the region shortly thereafter. Archaeological Studies Archaeological investigations at Oc Eo have identified a city including an area of some 1,100 acres (450 hectares). The excavations revealed brick temple foundations and the wooden pilings built to raise the houses above the Mekongs frequent flooding. Inscriptions in Sanskrit found at Oc Eo detail Funan kings, including a reference to King Jayavarman who fought a great battle against an unnamed rival king and founded many sanctuaries dedicated to Vishnu. Excavations also have identified workshops for the production of jewelry, particularly Indo-Pacific beads, as well as workshops for casting metals. Seals bearing brief Sanskrit texts in the Indian Brahmi script, and trade items from Rome, India, and China attest to the economic basis of the city. Brick vaults have been found containing cremated human remains with rich grave goods, such as gold leaves bearing inscriptions and images of women, gold discs and rings, and a golden flower. Archaeological History Oc Eos existence was first noted by the pioneering French photographer/archaeologist Pierre Paris, who took aerial photographs of the region in the 1930s. Paris, one of the earliest of archaeologists inventing the science of  remote sensing, noted ancient canals crisscrossing the Mekong Delta, and the outline of a large rectangular city, later recognized as the ruins of Oc Eo. French archaeologist Louis Malleret excavated at Oc Eo in the 1940s, identifying the extensive water control system, monumental architecture, and a wide variety of international trade goods. In the 1970s, after a long hiatus forced by World War II and the Vietnam War, Vietnamese archaeologists based at the Social Science Institute at Ho Chi Minh city began new research in the Mekong Delta region. The recent investigation into the canals at Oc Eo suggest that they once connected the city with the agrarian capital of Angkor Borei, and may well have facilitated the remarkable trade network spoken of by the Wu emperors agents. Sources Bishop, Paul, David C. W. Sanderson, and Miriam T. Stark. OSL and Radiocarbon Dating of a Pre-Angkorian Canal in the Mekong Delta, Southern Cambodia. Journal of Archaeological Science 31.3 (2004): 319–36. Print.Bourdonneau, Eric. Rà ©habiliter Le Funan Óc Eo Ou La Premià ¨re Angkor. Bulletin de lÉcole franà §aise dExtrà ªme-Orient 94 (2007): 111–58. Print.Carter, Alison Kyra. The Production and Exchange of Glass and Stone Beads in Southeast Asia from 500 BCE to the Early Second Millennium CE: An Assessment of the Work of Peter Francis in Light of Recent Research. Archaeological Research in Asia 6 (2016): 16–29. Print.Hall, Kenneth R. The Indianization of Funan: An Economic History of Southeast Asias First State. Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 13.1 (1982): 81–106. Print.Higham, Charles. Encyclopedia of Archaeology. Ed. Pearsall, Deborah M. New York: Academic Press, 2008. 796–808. Print.Malleret, Louis. Les Dodà ©caà ¨dres Dor Du Si te Doc-Èo. Artibus Asiae 24.3/4 (1961): 343–50. Print.Sanderson, David C.W. , et al. Luminescence Dating of Canal Sediments from Angkor Borei, Mekong Delta, Southern Cambodia. Quaternary Geochronology 2 (2007): 322–29. Print.Sanderson, D. C. W., et al. Luminescence Dating of Anthropogenically Reset Canal Sediments from Angkor Borei, Mekong Delta, Cambodia. Quaternary Science Reviews 22.10–13 (2003): 1111–21. Print.Stark, Miriam T. Early Mainland Southeast Asian Landscapes in the First Millennium A.D. Annual Review of Anthropology 35.1 (2006): 407–32. Print.---. Pre-Angkor Earthenware Ceramics from Cambodias Mekong Delta. Udaya: Journal of Khmer Studies 2000.1 (2000): 69–89. Print.---. Pre-Angkorian Settlement Trends in Cambodia’s Mekong Delta and the Lower Mekong Archaeological Project. Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association 26 (2006): 98–109. Print.Stark, Miriam T., et al. Results of the 1995–1996 Archae ological Field Investigations at Angkor Borei, Cambodia. Asian Perspectives 38.1 (1999): 7–36. Print.Vickery, Michael. Funan Reviewed: Deconstructing the Ancients. Bulletin de lEcole franà §aise dExtrà ªme-Orient 90/91 (2003): 101–43. Print.

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Hamlet A Fragile Mind - 1429 Words

Hamlet with a fragile mind as it is with the death of his father and the the commitment made by both his mother and his uncle has been told of a ghost sighting outside of elsinore by the guards of Denmark. He is then asked to watch upon the night to see if it is or is not the ghost of his late father. With everything that has been going on in Hamlet’s life is he prepared to encounter such a paranormal event; or, is he not in the right state of mind to acknowledge and comprehend his late father’s ghost and the request he makes to Hamlet? The ghost sighting could even just be an allusion to the start of Hamlet’s madness. A winter night outside of the castle of elsinore and one of the late night shift guards, Bernardo, comes to relieve†¦show more content†¦The ghost then appears again on the same exact time that it had struck the night before. Horatio tries himself to speak to the ghost. The ghost remains silent as Horatio tries to talk to it. Horatio tries and tries and keeps failing to get a response back. This gives him the idea that if the ghost really is the ghost of King Hamlet it will have no problem speaking to itÅ› living son. He gives ther guards the okay that they should tell Hamlet about what they have been visited by the past two nights. The morning after Horatio and the guards see the ghost King Claudius gives a speech explaining his marriage to Gertrude, his brotherÅ› widow and mother of Hamlet. He speaks of how he is sorry for his brothers death and how he is going to take charge of the kingdom now that they are threatened by Prince Fortunbross. Now with Claudus in charge this means that Hamlet will not take thrown as planned to be the king. King Claudius seems to make that everything is okay with him and Hamlet. He acts now more like a father to Hamlet than his uncle now that he has married to his mother. With this in mind, Claudius wishes for Hamlet to return back to school where he had been studying before his father s death. His mother supports his new stepfather completely. As if it had been his mother s plan all along for this to happen. Hamlet decides to agree with them more or less to keep the piece but by his expression you can tell he isShow MoreRelated Loss of Innocence in Hamlet Essay1265 Words   |  6 PagesLoss of Innocence in Hamlet      Ã‚  Ã‚   Hamlet is a character that we love to read about and analyze. His character is so realistic, and he is so romantic and idealistic that it is hard not to like him. He is the typical young scholar facing the harsh reality of the real world. In this play, Hamlet has come to a time in his life where he has to see things as they really are. Hamlet is an initiation story. Mordecai Marcus states some initiations take their protagonists across a threshold ofRead MoreHamlet by Williams Shakespeare: The Women Hidden in the Shadows1154 Words   |  5 Pagesand bold actions. The females in Hamlet, Ophelia and Gertrude, both play roles with little importance, which demonstrates the lack of independence present; causing these characters to solely rely of the main characters of the play— the men. Although Shakespeare often wrote tragedies, it is no secret that he kept a place in his heart for romance. The female roles in the play are emphasized as weak woman if they lac k a companion, and therefore are helpless. Hamlet and Claudius, the main male charactersRead MoreThe Resisting Reader, By Judith Fetterley1391 Words   |  6 Pagesof the typical damsel in distress. The fragile young maiden who cannot fend for herself and must be told what to do by a strong, capable hero permeates both popular and classical literature. The argument of the feminist critic is that this idea is inaccurate and outdated, and should be updated to match the real picture of a woman as her own person, her own specific character. One of the most iconic pictures of the femme fatale is Ophelia in Shakespeare’s Hamlet. Ophelia is often viewed as a flat, one-dimensionalRead MoreDeath of a Salesman vs Hamlet: Tragic Heroes The Essence of Fragile Dreams1151 Words   |  5 PagesEssence of Fragile Dreams Success, although defining different perspectives, depicts a state of mind each human dreams of obtaining before the end of their time. If the task displays immoral actions, however, a different form of success requires acknowledgement just as equally as a task that demonstrates acceptance and heroic deeds. Therefore, every person contains characteristics that describe that of a hero, do they not? Each human has endured hardship and suffering. Each human mind composesRead MoreRelationship Between Polonius And Ophelia1299 Words   |  6 Pagesguess that the play Hamlet, written by William Shakespeare, is indeed about Hamlet, the prince of Denmark. What they do not expect, however, is to encounter a subplot that is so involved that the removal of it would cause the storyline to change drastically. The relationships between Polonius and his children, Laertes and Ophelia, serve as an essential subplot in Hamlet as they add complex literary elements that advance the play forward and rev eal key attributes about Hamlet. The advice that PoloniusRead MoreEssay on Corruption of Christianity in Shakespeares, Hamlet664 Words   |  3 PagesIn the play Hamlet, the motif of suicide is used throughout the play to shine a light on the corruption of Christianity and the implications of suicide and the after-life and the effect it has on one’s relationship with God. It accomplishes this through the use of allusions and metaphors and the development of multiple characters relationships with God throughout the play as they go through the challenges and experiences that are present within Hamlet. In Hamlet, the act of suicide is a motif, howeverRead More The Treatment of Women in Hamlet Essay1014 Words   |  5 PagesThe Treatment of Women in Hamlet   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The treatment of women in Hamlet is very troubling. The leading female characters, Queen Gertrude and Ophelia, are pawns or puppets for the men around them. Like chess pieces, they are moved about and influenced by the men they love with little say of their own; in fact, Shakespeare does not even develop their characters.    Of course, Hamlet is the whirlwind at the center of attention throughout the play, one who is incredibly difficult toRead MoreHamlet, By William Shakespeare1003 Words   |  5 PagesIn Shakespeare’s play Hamlet, women also remain within a confined space of their chastity that is dictated by men. Claudius’ manipulation of Gertrude defines her submissive character as a woman. The family in Ophelia’s life command her actions due to viewing the purpose of her existence to be innocent. Ophelia is also driven to madness at the mercy of Hamlet, taking her own life. Shakespeare uses the few women in Hamlet, who are portrayed as sinful and weak-willed by being manipulated by men, toRead MoreThe Mind of the Mad: Analysis of Hamlet1552 Words   |  7 PagesThe Mind of The Mad What is it to be mad? Is it related to something of biological background? Or is it to do with the complex breakdown of one’s emotions? Or is it both? These questions are important to keep in mind when understanding whether Hamlet is truly mad or feigning madness as part of his ‘plan’ in which Shakespeare builds up throughout the play. This relates to the second aspect which must also be looked at when comprehending the fictional play Hamlet. This aspect is the certain ‘key’Read MoreThe Relationship Between The Psychological Portraits Of Hamlet And Claudius892 Words   |  4 Pages Chandula Perera Professor Alan Nadler English 201 15 May 2015 Interrelation between the Psychological Portraits of Hamlet and Claudius While investigating for clues to relate the psychological facts between these two huge personalities in Shakespeare’s novel Hamlet, I found some valuable information that will help to summarize the thesis of this topic. â€Å"Hamlet focuses on the complications arising from love, death, and betrayal, without offering the audience a decisive and positive resolution to

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Effects of Tcb on the Economy of Bangladesh Free Essays

string(33) " the other one is imported ones\." I would like to thank our honorable teacher for arranging such a good session and allowing me to take this topic for term paper. His special guidance has made it successful to prepare this document. I would like to convey my special gratitude to the authority of the Department of Business Studies for designing this course outline. We will write a custom essay sample on Effects of Tcb on the Economy of Bangladesh or any similar topic only for you Order Now Index Introduction1 Objectives1 What is TCB1 Economic Condition of Consumers2 Present Price Situation of Consumer Goods Market3 Reasons of Price Hike3 International Price Change3 Price Rise of Oil (Fuel)4 Stockiet’s Activity4 Delay in Supply Channel5Special Events5 Cumulative Action5 Types of Price Change5 One Shot Price Change6 Continuous Price Change6 Special Events6 Activities of TCB6 OMS (Open Market Sale)6 Distribution through Selected Dealers7 Monitoring Market Price7 Procurement of Essential Goods7 From International Market7 From Local Market8 Effects of TCB on Our Economy8 Positive Effects8 Negative Effects9 Findings and Recommendations9 Conclusion9 Introduction Trading Corporation of Bangladesh, which is abbreviated as TCB, came into existence in the after-war situation of Bangladesh after liberation in the year of 1972.At that time market of Bangladesh was suffering from lack of supply of essential goods and industrial raw materials because of unstable situation. Pe ople of Bangladesh were not ready to invest for importing such goods and the Government policies had not yet been formulated in regards of export-import business. So the then government of Bangladesh had to intervene the consumer goods market as well as the industrial raw materials market. It was an aid to nurture the newborn economy of Bangladesh so that internal production industries could boost up and price of consumable goods would not go beyond reach of general people.As the supply chain was not yet built TCH played important role to make essential goods easily available to the consumers at reasonable price. Still TCB is playing such role in Bangladesh to establish a channel through which goods can be easily made available to the consumers in awkward situations. Objectives ? To understand the role of TCB in consumer goods market. ? To investigate possible reasons of price hike in the consumer goods market. ? To investigate impacts of TCB both positive and negative on consumer goods market. What is TCBTCB, the national trading house under the Ministry of Commerce of the Government of the Peoples Republic of Bangladesh, is an autonomous body headed by a chairman and the administration of this trading house lies on the Board of Directors, which comprises two Directors. All of these members are deputed from the BCS cadre officers’ pool. Though TCB was established in the backdrop of all round scarcities of essential consumer items and industrial raw materials after the liberation of Bangladesh now it works with some extension of role. TCB is run commercially and sometimes intervening the market during sky rocketing of price of essential commodities or crisis period or during some special events (like the holy Ramadan or disaster) with a view to keeping it within the reach of general mass. Principal roles played by TCB are as given below. ? To carry on business of imports and exports in accordance with the policy of the Government. ? To arrange for the sale and distribution of the imported/locally procured goods and to appoint dealers etc. , for this purpose as per Government directives. Monitoring of prices of essential commodities in the local market vis-a-prices in the international market. ? Market intervention during price hike in the local market. ? To do all other acts and things connected with or ancillary thereto. Economic Condition of Consumers Bangladesh is a developing country. It’s economy is mainly based on the agricultural industry though there is some good advancements in the RMG sector. Most of the people of urban areas are depended on jobs (government or private) with limited income. Majority of the urban population fall in the middle class group having an average monthly earnings of Tk. 8000 to Tk. 0000. This is merely enough to buy their daily needs. Rural people depend on agricultural works. Those who work in other’s land are very poor in this context. Very few percentage of the total population of Bangladesh are solvent. Therefore a small change in the price in the consumer goods market creates big impact on the whole economy. Even it was stated that the nation was suffering from malnutrition in recent past. Present Price Situation of Consumer Goods Market Bangladesh is the part of the global economy; as such they have to face the danger of the global financial crisis, which is a macro and micro impact all over the world. In the latter part of the 2008, the global financial crisis has been spreading out all over the globe which leads to danger not only for USA and European countries, but to other parts of the world. Excessive liberalization, non-compliance of corporate governance, and through financial engineering, the market was manipulated that was the causative factors behind the crisis. Presently Consumer Goods Market of Bangladesh is suffering from price hike causing unbearable sufferings to poor and ultra-poor people including the middle class households.Most of the things costs double the price compared to the price of 4/5 years back. People had to curtail their expenditures even in the case of education, medication and daily foods. Reasons of Price Hike There are various reasons behind price hike. Some of the reasons may be: International Price Change Any price change in the international market creates impacts on the local market. An increase in the price of edible oil in the international market causes an increase in our local market too. Mostly price of those goods, which are imported from foreign markets, are vulnerable to international price.Price of some goods, which are not imported directly, but their variations are imported, also rise due to price rise in the international market. For example think about onion. There are two types of onions in the market, one is our local product and the other one is imported ones. You read "Effects of Tcb on the Economy of Bangladesh" in category "Papers" If the price of the imported onions rise price of local onions would also rise. The economy of Bangladesh faces another problem. When price rises in the international market, it is observed that in the domestic market price rises sharply. But when price falls in the international market its responds very slowly in the domestic market.We know that at the time of opening of the Letter of Credit (L//C), the price which is available in the international market, it will continue and as such all on a sudden it may not be possible to reduce. But the rate of decrease of the price occurs at a far lower speed than what is actually desired. Price Rise of Oil (Fuel) Price of fuel is one major factor on which price of consumable goods depends. Fuel price has multiple effect on price of consumable goods. For example fuel is required for production, for transportation, for retailing, etc. Even electricity is somewhat dependent of fuel price.During load shedding some retailers, dealers who work in urban areas, use diesel generators to produce electricity for their temporary use. If oil price rise more expense will incur. As a result the retailer, the dealers will think of increasing price of goods what they sell to keep their earnings fixed. Stockiet’s Activity In cases there are possibilities of price going high some stockiest buy more goods to make a handsome stock thinking that they would sell it at higher price. This causes shortage or scarcity of that good that time. As a result price of that good goes high. Sometimes dishonest business men create syndicate and stocks whole of a particular market. As a result an artificial scarcity of that good arise which eventually creates price rise. Delay in Supply Channel Sometimes it happens that price of imported goods has fallen in the international market but price in local market is not falling. Normally it is because the system delay in the channel between the importers and the retailers. Sometimes it is done intentionally to earn more money. Special Events Price rocketing of dal, onion, brinzal, rice, sugar, and all other food items is a common scenario in every Ramadan in our country.During Ramadan demand of these items increase so sharply that supply cannot meet that. As a result price increases sharply according to the general principle of the economy. Besides these mentality of our people is also set like that. We always get ready to buy things at higher price during Ramadan. Whatever the price of brinzel is, it is sold out. Even the poorest of our population keep some extra budget for that. This is a regular phenomenon in our country. The government of Bangladesh tries to keep the price of things within some specific range but hardly they can do. Cumulative ActionPrice increase has cumulative effects on each other. If price of food increases food sellers earn more money. But what about the others who only buy foods. They try to increase their income. Landlords increase their rent, transport owners try to earn more by increasing fare, professionals increase their fees, service sellers increase their price of service, etc. This way price in every micro level increases which eventually increases the price level. Types of Price Change Our economy is vulnerable to two types of price changes. Those are one shot increase and the other one is continuous increase.One Shot Price Change Price may increase for once and stops at that position for a measurable period of time. This is one shot increment. One shot price increase does not create the inflation. It only increases the price level for once. This thing normally happens in our country when a new pay scale is declared by the government. Price of everything rises even before declaration, when the government has decided to declare. Continuous Price Change Price may increase continuously for a measurable period of time. This type of price increase causes inflation. In recent past our economy was experiencing such phenomenon.Not only our economy the world economy experienced the continuous price change. Currently price is some what stable though 2 or 3 times higher that that in the year of 2000. Special Events Sometimes price goes high for some special events. For example during the Ramadan price of essential goods and food items go extremely high because sudden increase of demand of those items in the market. Incase of disasters price of essential goods may also increase. But generally price increases unexpectedly though predictable in every Ramadan. This has become normal phenomenon in our country.Activities of TCB TCB, being the national trading house of Bangladesh played and plays vital role during price hike situation of Bangladesh. OMS (Open Market Sale) Open Market Sale is an activity taken by the government of Bangladesh during price rocketing situation. In this program TCB sells rice, onion, sugar and other essential goods in the open market for reasonable price. This programs helps people to get things within their purchasing capacity. Distribution through Selected Dealers TCB collects goods from various sources like purchases from open market or from international market.Then distributes those goods in remote areas other than urban areas through dealers. Generally rice, flour, sugar, etc are sold through the dealers among the mass people at rational prices. Monitoring Market Price TCB always monitors the market situation and reports the government of the Bangladesh regarding the price and other conditions of the market like supply of specific goods. TCB also sets price of the essential goods at which those should be retailed in different markets and also monitors whether those are sold at the specified prices. This activity helps mass people to get essential goods at normal prices.Procurement of Essential Goods From International Market TCB played a vital significant role in the Import Trade during the initial years after liberation. By importing a good number of essential consumer goods and industrial raw materials, it stabilized the prices in the market, as well as provided a great relief to the general consumers and small industrial units by supplying goods at reasonable prices. During the period of 1972-77 TCB used to import as many as 70 commodities such as Cement, Milk Food, C. I. Sheet, Drugs Medicine, Textile, Yarn, Soda Ash, Auto Rickshaw, Salt, Sugar, Onion, M. S Billets, Al. Ingot, Pig-Iron,Zinc Ingot, Arms Cartridges, Timber etc. But due to introduction of free market economy, TCB’s role in the field of import has become very limited. As a result, functions and activities of TCB have largely been squeezed. Since fair trade has yet to be started, TCB’s role is significant to control the market. In fact, TCB’s interventionist role can never be denied. Whenever there has been any shortfall in the supply of any essential consumer goods in the market, TCB has, on the advice of the Government, made arrangement for emergency import of the said items in order to ensure adequate supply and to stabilize the market price.During 2005-06, in view of unusual price situation of some essential commodities in the local market, TCB imported Red Lentils procured onion gram(Chhola) from local market sugar from BSFIC for direct sale at a fair price From Local Market TCB also collects food grains, sola, dal, sugar, lentils, etc from local market during the harvesting seasons and warehouses them accordingly. In case of scarcity of such goods TCB sells them to end consumers through OMS or selected dealers. Effects of TC B on Our Economy Positive Effects ? In case of price rocketing situation it relieves general consumers from sufferings. They get things through OMS or selected dealers of TCB very easily at their hands. It helps to break syndicates present in the market. ? When importers cannot take initiatives of importing bulk amount of essential goods fearing loss in future the government can take initiatives for importing those goods. ? TCB distributes essential goods through dealers, who are supposed to report to the government through proper channel. Therefore it creates a good channel of distribution of consumer goods among the end users. ? TCB always monitors the market and informs the government.This helps the government to take decision whether the market should be regulated or not. Negative Effects ? Free market economy concept does not allow intervention of external affairs into the market. ? Sometimes perfect competition is hampered due to the presence of the activity of TCB. ? Some dishonest dealers warehouse goods, which are distributed through them and it creates worst effect in the market. Findings and Recommendations Though in the present free market economy concept it is not expected that the government of a country would intervene the consumer goods market, sometimes it is needed for the betterness of mass people.But TCB should operate in a regulated way. It should not intervene into every nook and corner of the market. At the same time it should be noted that TCB is not the only way to combat the price hike. Some other things like circulation of black money in the market should be regulated. Stockiest should be prevented from warehousing most essential goods for so long time for ill motives. Conclusion When some one is unable to walk by himself he can be aided by some external tools. Our economy is not so robust.It is vulnerable to so many affairs: international market, local syndicate, corruption in everywhere, lack of stable capital, political instability, majority of our people lie under poverty level, etc. In this situation when market cannot regulate itself the government can take initiatives. This task is some how done by the TCB. It purchases goods from local markets as well as from foreign markets and distributes those essential goods in the awkward situation. It helps people to get things in their reach. However its scope should be specified and its limit should be drawn. Proper guidance of its operation may result in benefits. How to cite Effects of Tcb on the Economy of Bangladesh, Papers

Sunday, May 3, 2020

Monopolies - Duopoly - and Oligopolies in Australia - myassignmenthelp

Question: Discuss about theMonopolies,Duopoly, and Oligopolies in Australia. Answer: Introduce The firms which are operating in the highly concentrated markets are considered as more profitable2. But if the firms operating are the monopoly, they are likely to showcase better results. As per the research studies, it has documented that the firms operating with the monopolistic powers within the Australia exercise a better position in terms of the investment in the research and innovation. The Australian monopoly companies are also able to better develop as compare to the smaller competitors. This Journal was published by the Centre for International Finance and Regulation8. It showed that the monopolies which have one player dominating the market are able to succeed in the Australia. Likewise, the duopolies which have two players operating and the oligopolies which have a small number of producers and sellers are able to perform better in the concentrated market of Australia in comparison to the competitors operating in the markets. The Economic Analysis The Australian market has the diverse market of opportunities. But, in order the drive success for the national economy it is defined with the structure of its markets6. There are different types of markets and each of them has different characteristics while operating in the market. The main market structures are divided into-: 1) Perfect Competition-: the perfection competition market is defined on the basis of the many buyers and the sellers. As per the classical theory, it defines and classifies perfection competition with infinite buyers and sellers. Due to the multiple buyers and sellers operating, it is difficult for the one particular firm which influences the market, in terms of demand and pricing. Apart from the many buyers and sellers, they are selling identical products with no particular differentiation. Firms are price takers and all the firms co-exist with the small market share. 2Australian Bureau of Statistics, Queensland Office,The Economic Status of Migrants in Australia,Canberra, Australian Govt. Pub. Service, 2011, p. 320. 6A.Kring, et al.,Abnormal Psychology,11thedn., Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley Sons, 2010, p. 40. 9The Cambridge Companion to Postmodernism,Cambridge, U.K., Cambridge University Press, 2004, p. 70. 2) Monopoly-: The monopoly market has opposite characteristics of the perfect competition. In a pure monopoly, there exists only one particular producer of the good and services7. There is no substitute for the product. Due to this, the single producer and seller are able to dominate the market and influence the pricing. There is low competition within the firms and profits are derived on the basis of the consumers willingness to purchase the particular product at the producer price. This type of market structure is possible due to the selling of the patents products and services, lack of close substitutes and on account of the high barriers. 3) Oligopoly -: Oligopoly market exists with the few producers that are able to dominate the market in terms of pricing, products, and production5. They are selling similar products but are slightly differentiable. The difference in between the monopoly and the oligopoly is that they do not have the same pricing power as of the monopolists. Due to the government regulation, the oligopolies can collude and can set prices in a similar monopolist way. 4) Monopolistic Competition-: It is a combination of the monopoly and of the perfect competition. There are many buyers and sellers, but the sellers are producing differentiable types of similar products. Due to this, in the monopolistic competition market structure, they are able to charge greater prices. 5) Monopsony-: The buyers can also differentiate the market system. In this type of market, there is a single buyer for the product and services due to which they can influence the pricing4. 7M.J. Sargent, P. Nilan, and G. Winter,The New Sociology for Australians,4th edn., Melbourne, Longman Australia, 2007, p. 140. 5J.M. Foley (ed.),A Companion To Ancient Epic,Oxford, Wiley-Blackwell, 2009, pp. 25-26. 4A. Blackledge and A. Creese,Multilingualism: a Critical Perspective,London, Continuum, 2010, p. 10. Due to the global competition and looking at the Australian economy, the monopoly, duopoly and the oligopoly are able to thrive in the market as they are able to fix either the pricing or the quantity of supply. Due to the low degree of competition within the Australian market, along with the pricing strategies and with the high profit, a performance of the firm, the monopolistic, oligopoly, and the duopoly are able to reap benefits from the market. Viewpoint As per my viewpoint and analysis, the monopoly market structure along with duopoly and the oligopoly can fairly exist in the Australian market. Due to the lower government regulation, lower degree of competition and numerous buyers the monopoly market framework can work profitably. For the key players the actions which are recommended are the-: As it is difficult to differentiate in between the market and the firm which co-exist within a given framework, the monopolists need to identify a specific strategy either to exercise their power on pricing or with the quantities of supplies. The products and services provided should not have close substitutes and the monopolists can create high barriers to entry by reaping economies of scale. The other ways are by creating patent licensing, technology superiority, and control of the essential and rare resource while selling in the market. As a price maker, it does not mean the monopolist can control both the price and quantity of supplies. Either fix the supply or dominate the market with the pricing factor. The other variable will be dependent on the given fixed variable which will exist due to the market forces. For the policy makers the viewpoint will be-: They can also formulate policies by regulating prices3. 3J. Baker, 'The Place of Science and Technology in the Wise Management of the Great Barrier Reef', in E. Wolanski (ed.), The monopolist power can be through government regulation. The policy makers can utilize the use of the competition laws, in order to make industry competitive. If it's foreseen any market failures due the monopoly market structure is small with the comparison to an imperfection of policies, then no action is deemed. For the Oligopolies, the policy makers can try their best to avoid cartel and collusion formation and prosecute them under the competition laws. Conclusion The Australian economy is the free and liberalized economy with low prevalent market imperfection and government regulation. Due to this, the monopoly, oligopoly and duopoly framework can easily exist with the Australian market structure which can prove to be profitable1. Due to the fair degree of competition and pricing strategies the monopolist market structure can easily dominate the market. The chances for the firms operating with the perfect competition market have low profitability and sustainability due to the stiff competition faced, as they are selling identical products. To expand and explore the Australian market, the monopoly type of market structure can boom, due to the sharing of large market share and high profitability. 1Y. Aralawa,Zen Painting, trans. J. Bester, Tokyo, Kodansha International,2010, p. 75 References Arakawa, Y.,Zen Painting, trans. J. Bester,Tokyo, Kodansha International, 2010. Australian Bureau of Statistics, Queensland Office,The Economic Status of Migrants in Australia,Canberra, Australian Govt. Pub. Service, 2011. Baker, J., 'The Place of Science and Technology in the Wise Management of the Great Barrier Reef', inE.Wolanski,(ed.),Oceanographic Processes of Coral Reefs: Physical and Biological Links in the Great Barrier Reef,Boca Raton, CRC Press, 2013, pp. 14-20. Blackledge, A.and A. Creese,Multilingualism: a Critical Perspective,London, Continuum, 2010. Foley, J.M. (ed.),A Companion To Ancient Epic,Oxford, Wiley-Blackwell, 2009. Kring, A.et al., Abnormal Psychology,11th edn., Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley Sons, 2010. Sargent, M.J., P. Nilan and G. Winter,The New Sociology for Australians,4th edn., Melbourne, Longman Australia, 2007. The Cambridge Companion to Postmodernism,Cambridge, U.K., Cambridge University Press, 2004.

Friday, March 27, 2020

Can people be mistaken about whether their life has value and ought to be ended

Table of Contents Introduction Utilitarianism Deontology The virtue theory Analysis of the theories Conclusion References Introduction To most people, human life is precious and sacred and thus they protect it by any means necessary. This fact is evidenced by the inclusion of the right to life and other rights that support it, which exist under the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and Freedoms and most constitutions across the world.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Can people be mistaken about whether their life has value and ought to be ended? specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Although the importance of life is often non-debatable, various circumstances make its protection a disputable issue. Some of the main controversial life-protection instances revolve around medical conditions such as terminal illnesses and circumstances that cause great pain to individuals. Euthanasia involves intentional ending of life with the aim of terminating suffering for such individuals and it has often ignited controversy amongst disparate subscribers to different moral theories. This paper explores three main theories with the aim of establishing whether it is possible for people to be mistaken regarding the value of their lives. It also explains the moral dilemma that each theory creates with a view of establishing the side that fully addresses the issue at hand. The theories of choice for this discussion are the utilitarianism, deontology, and the virtue theory. Utilitarianism The utilitarian theory, which is credited to John Stuart Mill and Jeremy Bentham, centers on the issue of morality from a comparative point of view. Essentially, the theory â€Å"describes a moral act as one that causes the greatest happiness to the greatest number of people† (Safer-Landau, 2007, p.35). This aspect means that the theory operates using a comparison of options rather than singular evaluation of individual actions. One of the main elements of the theory is that it focuses on pain and pleasure. According to Bentham, moral behavior reduces pain and increases pleasure for an individual. For instance, Bentham expresses the view that a person has the right to set his own house on fire if it brings him or her more pleasure than pain (Mosser, 2013). Secondly, morality focuses on the will of the majority. This provision serves to prevent destructive behaviors such as murder and theft, which cause pleasure to an individual and harm to a community (Safer-Landau, 2007). Therefore, according to the earlier example, a person also has to consider the way his or her actions affect others before setting a house on fire. Thirdly, the theory focuses on the result of a said behavior rather than the intention in the determination of morality. Therefore, certain behaviors might fall on the immoral end of the scale, regardless of the intention behind them being essentially good. A good example of such a situation is one where a person steals in order to feed his or her family.Advertising Looking for research paper on ethics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The application of the theory to the issue of euthanasia often results in a moral dilemma and offers no plausible resolution to the question at hand. On one hand, the theory makes it clear that an individual has the right to take his or her own life at will as long as he or she does not interfere with the lives of others in the process. On the other hand, the theory suggests that taking â€Å"one’s life is only moral if the result is the greatest pleasure for the greatest number† (Safer-Landau, 2007, p.44). The dilemma in this theory arises when considering whether the consideration of the morality of the procedure should be according to the patient on the receiving end or family and doctors forming the majority. The theory creates the impression tha t one’s right to life is dependent on the happiness of others, thus resulting in questions on the validity of morality of the concept. According to a YouTube video on the matter titled ‘Right to die, assisted suicide, euthanasia Part 15’, one of the issues that patient raise is the right to die with dignity without being a burden to their families or creating anguish to loved ones. It also points out that even though the process seems selfish; it is also selfish for a family to allow one of its own to suffer such pain for personal satisfaction. This theory thus provides no resolution to the question of whether one should place value on his or her life based on personal perceptions or that of others. Deontology Deontology, unlike utilitarianism, focuses on a person’s intention for the performance of certain actions with regard to the rule governing such actions. According to Immanuel Kant, who the main proponent of the theory, actions are only moral if they originate from a point of obligation or duty as per the rules to which a society prescribes (Mosser, 2013). Kant explains that human beings are not inherently moral and that most voluntary acts come from a place of self-gratification. Therefore, for actions to be moral, the intention must be the fulfillment of a duty. To him, morality is a requirement and not a goal requiring people to strive for in order to attain (Shafer-Landau, 2007). He gives two qualifications for moral actions, viz. such actions should possess universal acceptance and they should comply with principles of humanity such as dignity and respect. In essence, one should treat others the way he or she would have them treat him or her. Although this theory is not universal in terms of application, it provides a partial answer to the question at hand. The theory provides a solution for a doctor that makes a decision on whether performing euthanasia is moral. Leon Kass, author of Neither for love nor money, supports t his theory by insisting that doctors have a duty to protect life to the end, and thus they should place their duty before love and monetary gain.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Can people be mistaken about whether their life has value and ought to be ended? specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In Kass’ view, medical codes of ethics exist to eliminate personal prejudices that doctors develop as individuals in the performance of their duties, including subjective notions of love and monetary gain (Kass, 1989). He states further that a doctor’s ethical duty is that which the code of ethics dictates and that adherence to the code allows for objectivity when making difficult decisions such as those regarding euthanasia (Kass, 1989). However, the theory operates on the presumption that morality in behavior only pertains to actions involving decisions made by others on a public interest basis. It ov erlooks the possibility of morality existing in matters of personal interest such as a patient opting for euthanasia for personal gain. Although most laws prohibit suicide, some states such as Washington, Virginia, and Montana, and countries such as Belgium and Switzerland support euthanasia as a legal means to end life, thus making it part of the duties of doctors in those areas to assist their patients accomplish it. According to a multimedia file titled The last chapter-end of life decisions by West Virginia Public Broadcasting in 2010, individuals battling terminal illnesses have the right to opt out of their suffering through euthanasia as long as they understand their options and consider legal processes in order to prevent moral dilemmas for their families and doctors. The virtue theory This theory essentially suggests that morality in behavior has a connection to a person’s character. According to Aristotle, who is one of the famous proponents of the theory, a virtuou s person is one with admirable characteristics and displays such characteristics in a balanced manner (Mosser, 2013). For instance, although courage is an admirable characteristic in any individual, the amount with which a person chooses to display it determines whether the person is virtuous and thus moral. In his opinion, a virtuous person is one who utilizes moral wisdom to achieve what he refers to as the â€Å"golden mean†, which is a balance between displaying too much and too little of a specific characteristic (Shafer-Landau, 2007). For instance, a person who displays too much courage in a battlefield by running into enemy lines is as doomed as one who displays little courage by hiding from the enemy. In this scenario, a virtuous person knows when to charge and when to hide in order to achieve victory in the end.Advertising Looking for research paper on ethics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In applying the theory to the issue of morality of euthanasia with regard to the value of life, the theory suggests the application of moral wisdom and excellence. Although the theory entails a look at both the intention and the result of actions by doctors, patients, and family, the presence of relativism in its explanation creates a dilemma regarding what constitutes the right amount of care. For instance, it is difficult to determine whether making a decision to perform euthanasia constitutes too much of a virtue, too little, or qualifies as the golden medium. Analysis of the theories An analysis of the three theories paints deontology as the best theory, even though it also possesses limitations. Unlike utilitarianism and the virtue theory, deontology does not entirely result in a moral dilemma, which does not help in the determination of an answer to the question at hand. Although the utilitarian theory supports the right of an individual to determine the value of his or her ow n life, it also pegs that right on the freedom to choose of the majority to determine whether such evaluation is right. Essentially, although the theory gives an individual the right to determine whether to live or die, the morality of such a decision rides on whether such death provides pleasure for family, friends, and sometimes doctors, instead on focusing on alleviation of suffering. The virtue theory also exhibits relativism on the concept of what constitutes morality as the right amount of virtue depends on the person exercising it. There is no universally acceptable measure of virtue that qualifies as the golden mean. In this sense, it creates a dilemma as to whether euthanasia lacks morality in its practice and whether the decision by a patient, doctor, and family to perform euthanasia is an indication of poor character for the individuals involved. Although deontology fails in the explanation as to whether an individual has a duty to protect his or her own life, it explains the duty of doctors to protect the lives of patients by any means legally available, thus portraying the execution of euthanasia as an immoral act for medical professionals. In this way, it provides a partial answer to the question and a means through which to establish morality. Conclusion A comparison of the three theories proves deontology as the best theory to use in the determination of the morality of practicing euthanasia with regard to the establishment of the value of life. Although the theory does not explain whether an individual has a duty to protect his or her own life by any means necessary, it establishes the fundamental rules that doctors should follow on the matter. References Kass, L. (1989). Neither for love nor money: why doctors must not kill. Public Interest, 94, 25-46. Mosser, K. (2013). Understanding philosophy. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education. Right to die, assisted suicide, euthanasia part 15 [Video file]. Web. Shafer-Landau, R. (2007). Ethical Theory : An Anthology. New Jersey, NJ: Blackwell. West Virginia Public Broadcasting: The Last Chapter-end of life decisions [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8jKUZ8lS9b4 This research paper on Can people be mistaken about whether their life has value and ought to be ended? was written and submitted by user Raiden Hays to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Friday, March 6, 2020

Analysis of Bruce Dawe and his Poetry Essay Essay Example

Analysis of Bruce Dawe and his Poetry Essay Essay Example Analysis of Bruce Dawe and his Poetry Essay Paper Analysis of Bruce Dawe and his Poetry Essay Paper Essay Topic: Poes Poetry Bruce Dawe is one of the most inspirational and true poets of our clip. Born in 1930. in Geelong. most of Dawe’s poesy concerns the common individual. His verse forms are a remembrance on the universe and issues around him. The statement ‘The poet’s function is to dispute the universe they see around them’ is really true for Bruce Dawe. as his chief intent in his poesy was to picture the mute societal issues refering the common Australian suburban occupant. His echt concern for these issues is obvious through his mocking attack to the issues he presents in his verse form. ‘Drifters’ is about a household who move from topographic point to topographic point. as the male parent needs to travel by the demand of his occupation. Dawe wrote this verse form in a really insouciant linguistic communication ; nevertheless. if you read it carefully you would be able to see the earnestness of what he is stating. The immature kids are turning up to larn no other manner of life except the life of continuously traveling. as they are all waiting for the twenty-four hours they shall travel once more. The kids get really excited about traveling from topographic point to topographic point ‘and the childs will shout truly’ . The firstborn is going cognizant that their roaming lives may neer alter ‘the oldest miss is close to cryings because she was happy here’ . She is going frustrated with her life. Dawe shows commiseration for the married woman. as she has to gone through this so many more times before ‘she won’t even ask why they’re go forthing this time’ . Dawe writes sympathetically about the married woman. like when she asks her hubby Tom to do a want in the last line of the verse forms ‘Make a wish. Tom. do a wish’ . Because this is a uninterrupted event. the married woman is acquiring frustrated. as at the clip of packing one time once more she finds that she has non unpacked from there last move. Even though this verse form is written in a happy tone Dawe is being serious about the issue of how a household gets disquieted about being stuck in a life that is continuously traveling about and non being for good settled anyplace. ‘Homecoming’ was written in 1968 during the Vietnam War with the purpose of doing its audience aware of the inanity and calamity of war. The poem trades with the legion phases of conveying the dead place for at that place ‘homecoming’ . a purportedly joyous juncture worthy of great jubilation. The rubric serves as a changeless reminder of what may hold been. Rather than approaching place observing their Heroic endurance. they are being bought place dead. ‘They’re conveying them in. piled on the hulls of Grants. in trucks. in convoys ; they’re zipping them up in plastic bags’ . Dawe uses a figure of cagey poetic techniques in order to show his feelings towards war. The perennial usage of ‘they’ and ‘they’re’ in the first subdivision intimations at the impersonal relationship between the organic structures and their animal trainers. Dawe shows his audience how this is the rough world of war. if people allowed the usual human compassion to get the better of them every clip they saw yet another dead organic structure. it would be excessively intolerable. Rhythm is besides used a great trade in the first subdivision. doing it sound about chant-like through the usage of intermissions that form a direct round. This beat suggests a slow. mechanical procedure. about like an assembly line. Interestingly. Dawe goes against conventional methods of interrupting his verse form up into different stanzas. Despite this. it is apparent that the verse form exists in three chief subdivisions – the assemblage of organic structures in the jungles of Saigon. the flight back to Australian for the dead soldiers. and eventually the organic structures returning place. In the 2nd stage of the verse form. this humdrum beat is abandoned. Gone is the ‘human touch’ from in the jungles of Saigon. now the organic structures are being lifted ‘high. now. high and higher’ . proposing that the organic structures are being taken to be laid to rest in Eden. Wordss like ‘noble’ . ‘whine’ and ‘sorrowful’ are used to show the sorrow and repent that Australian’s will experience as their dead young persons are bought place. Through the usage of the personification of the planes. Dawe voices the unhappiness and futility of the state of affairs. ‘tracing the bluish curve of the Pacific with sorrowful speedy fingers’ . In the concluding stage of ‘Homecoming’ Dawe focuses on the soldiers eventually coming ‘home. place. home’ . The tone alterations. and the lines echo the feeling of homesick Australian soldiers. As the planes approach Australia ‘the seashores swing upward’ to run into the planes. This is the coastline that would hold been so familiar to the soldiers had they been coming home alive. yet now they don’t have the chance to see the ‘knuckled hills. the mangrove-swamps. the desert emptiness’ . an environment immensely different from the jungle they had fought so valorously in. ‘A Victorian hangman tells his love’ is about a adult male who enjoys what his occupation consists of. His occupation consists of hanging felons as a penalty for the offenses they have committed. Bruce Dawe writes this verse form from the bent adult males perspective. it tells the audience how he feels about executing. Dawe explains that the hangman is ashamed to have on his hangman apparels in forepart of his married woman. ‘Two piece tracksuit. welder’s goggles and a green fabric cap like some gross bee- this is the provinces idea†¦Ã¢â‚¬â„¢ . He thinks of a hanging as a bridal. and by reading these lines you can state how particular hangings are to him. The tone is of this verse form is ashamed and proud. the hangman is ashamed because of the inexpensive apparels he has to have on when it is so particular to him and proud because -=- - Dawe writes about the hangings as if they are a ritual. ‘This noose with which we’re wed is something o f an heirloom’ . the hangman feels as if the hanging gives them some sort of particular connexion. The human status is explained throughout this verse form. the manner people feel towards these hangings and the manner the hangman feels about these hangings. This was the last hanging to take topographic point in Australia. it was really controversial and Dawe writes about it as if the hangman is really disquieted. as this will be his concluding hanging. It is really Australian in puting as it is a specifying minute in our history as Australia. It was the last life taken for capital penalty in Australia. Dawe writes this verse form in a controversial manner as it describes how the hangman enjoys ‘ hitting the door lever. you will travel away into a new life’ this hangman thinks that he is making these work forces a favour by taking their lives. ‘On the Death of Ronald Ryan’ is about a adult male who is traveling to be executed for a offense he purportedly committed. Dawe writes this verse form in Ronald Ryan’s wife’s or lover perspective. The reader can experience her unhappiness towards Ronald’s executing. and her regard for him deceasing ‘most horrifyingly like a man’ . The human status is undeniably Australian as there is the mark of a true combatant ‘annealed un-tranquilized. contemning a concluding statement’ . Dawe writes of the married woman as if she wished Ronald died ‘with far more self-respect than the shabby ritual which gave you recognition for’ .

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

The Impact of the Informal Economy on Mozambique Research Paper

The Impact of the Informal Economy on Mozambique - Research Paper Example This is based on the government’s efforts to encourage the informal firms to formalize their operations. The informal economy is characterized with unpredictable expansions especially when the economic growth is significantly low. It is also likely to shrink when the economic performance improve. The informal economy in Mozambique is comprised of about 7.7 million workers who are direct beneficiaries of the informal economy. Mozambique is a country that has enjoyed substantial success after going through a conflict that devastated its economy. The country experienced a significant economic increase between the years 2000 and 2006 of about 8 per cent. This success is attributed to the political stability and the macroeconomic stability that it has witnessed over years that it has under economic recovery. The strong economic development is mostly driven by foreign funded projects that are also boosted by the significant flow of aid. The informal economy has not been left behind as it is considered part of the vibrant economic growth2. The informal sector refers to the industrial sector that is not regulated by the government or the informal sector. It has made substantial contributions to the economy that has enabled the country boost its economy. The informal economy is an essential solution in ending poverty because it employs a good number of people. Statistics reveals that the informal economy in Sub Saharan Africa contributes about fifty per cent of the whole economy. Most African country’s economies depend on the Agricultural sector, while the informal sector has increasingly contributed to their GDP. The business in the informal economy employs a significant number of workers who are not employed by the formal sector. The statistics further indicate that over 89% of workers in the informal sector are women3. This is compared to only 54% of the workers who are