Wednesday, August 26, 2020

Investigating Criminal Justice And Forensic Science

Examining Criminal Justice And Forensic Science The primary field of criminal examination is measurable science. It is generally imperative to comprehend to scientific science first. Scientific science is the use of the science to the crook and common laws that are authorized by police offices in a criminal equity framework (Richard S. 2007, page-5). Criminal examination is the assortment of data and proof for distinguishing, capturing and sentencing suspected wrongdoers Professor Ralph F. Turner of Michigan State University likes: A criminal examination is the recreation of the past occasion Either definition might be explained further by inspecting the particular duties of the agent (James W.O. furthermore, Richard H.W., 2000, page no. 5). This article will initially show the concise history of criminal examination then it will portray wrongdoing research facility including their fundamental and operational administrations. Finely we will talk about some significant innovation. The point of this paper portrays criminal examinati on previously and now because of expansion of new advancements (see informative supplement 1.1). History of criminal examination Today many accept that Sir Arthur Conan Doyle had impressive impact on advocating logical wrongdoing location techniques through his anecdotal character Sherlock Holmes, who previously applied recently creating standards of serology (see informative supplement 1.1), fingerprinting, guns distinguishing proof and questions-reports assessment well before their worth was first perceived and acknowledged by genuine criminal investigations(Richard S. 2007, page-5). Past sort of controlled affirmation didn't begin to develop until the eighteenth and nineteenth hundreds of years for wrongdoing, a period during which a lot of our cutting edge - day science understanding was simply beginning to be created. At that point new legal term Toxicology was depicted by Mathieu Orfila (1787-1853) in 1840 for his criminal examination. (White P.C. 2008, page - 2). What's more Bresler (1992) proposes that in Brussels during 1843 the police took the first since forever photo of a lawbreaker. In France mid 1879 Alphonse Bertillon (1853-1914) named for police in city of Paris to process reports document with depiction of photos (Lan K. P., 2005 page-4), He likewise contrived the primary logical arrangement of individual ID in 1879 in this framework he applied some arrangement of body estimations to recognize criminal and others. For barely any decades it was acceptable technique for criminal recognizable proof after it takeover by fingerprinting almost 1900s, ear ly his exertion make him Father of criminal ID (Richard S. 2007, page-6). Anyway it was first time in criminal examination and now criminological researchers utilize this outcome for mix of explanatory estimation to separate between gatherings or to think about examples. Fingerprints turned out to be progressively effective technique for individual distinguishing proof. It was Sir William Herschel, a British government worker in India and Henry Faulds got credit for early examination (White P.C. 2008, page-3). Francis Galton (1822-1911) First complete investigation of fingerprints and built up a philosophy of grouping them for recording. He likewise distributed a book Finger Prints which placated the primary factual confirmation supporting the uniqueness of his strategy for individual ID (Richard S. 2007, page-6). Then again up until 1900 it had been difficult to decide whether a blood test or stain was of human or creature inception (White P.C. 2008, page-3). At that point Blood bu nches strategy quickly applied to criminal examination in 1915 by Dr. Leone Letter (1887-1957). Before Dr. Karl Landsteiner found blood may sort out in sub classes as A, B, AB, and O. at that point comes to realize that, it very well may be utilize full for criminal distinguishing proof (Richard S. 2007, page-6). Just as in 1910, Albert S. Osborn composed first book Questioned Documents. In this book he built up certain standards of reports examination which is perceived by court. Aside from this a backer Edmond Locard persuaded The Lyons Police office to begin police lab. His works was recognized by scientific researcher and criminal examiners then they bolster him become originator and executive of the establishment of Criminalistics at the University of Lyons. He felt that when a criminal engaged with crime so he can be related with wrongdoing by dust particles (Locard 's Exchange rule: at whatever point at least two items interact with each other, there is trade of material betw een them). For the sake of this confirmation criminal captured and feel regretful himself in court. After first world-wore he was triumphs to concur some nation to constructed police research facility. Presently Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is greatest research center in world which is breaking down up to one million cases each year (Richard S. 2007, page-8). (See supplement 1.1, 1.3 and 1.4). Wrongdoing lab for criminal examination Criminal labs are fundamentally evolved by organizations which have imminent reason to criminal examination or pushed by rising request of casework. This autonomous offices expanded number of staff one worker to more than hundred and improved their office specifically course. New innovation lead measurable researcher with different abilities and application to confront dynamic support in criminal judges framework. There are two primary fundamental and discretionary administrations gave by criminological research facilities. In essential administrations, right off the bat physical science unit investigations standard of topography, physic and science to discover criminal with the assistance of wrongdoing scene confirmation (drugs, paint, soil, glass and dangerous). Second is science unit which is presently a day's fundamentally answerable for DNA Profiling. They took DNA from different sources (like hair, blood, skin, spit and that's just the beginning) and lead to capture right crook . Thirdly guns unit, they search for focus of point, which arms have been utilized. At that point reports look at unit, break down penmanship, connection among paper and ink. Finely photography unit, new procedure like x-beam, bright and computerized photography carry undetectable things to in proof. Other operational administrations are toxicology unit, Latent fingerprinting unit, polygraph unit, voiceprint examination unit and wrongdoing scene examination (Richard S. 2007, page-13). We will talk about in detail in next hardly any sections and how it have changed with time. (See addendum 1.1). Procedure and innovation engaged with criminal strengthening and how it created with time Criminological proof beginnings at the scene if proofs are unrecognized or handle without care at the scene, a large portion of research facility investigation will be not able to recognize honest evidence for wrongdoing and scene cannot be return to for more exertion to recorded other verification. There are a few people required for obligation this assignment, which are cops, analysts, wrongdoing scene inspector, logical help official, or legal researcher. In nineteenth century, specialized backings were rising a direct result of first most significant work was recognized and reported by Gross in a book Criminal Investigation for the significance of precise methodologies then his work was likewise impacts this time for craft of wrongdoing identifications. Significance of substance evidence was first observe by Locard (See addendum 1.1) which can give interfaces in arrangement of verification and as a result of him in twentieth century, the huge hop forward in expository strategy an d electronic upset in each part of science to encourage Locard follow confirmation which can be glass, filaments, soil, blood, hair, and some more. This confirmation we can incorporate as physical proof. (White P.C. 2008, page - 21). Be that as it may, it is unworkable to gather everything from wrongdoing site. The accomplished examiner notable to perceived significant article and how it very well may be utilized as a proof of wrongdoing and how field master can examination this thing in research center. There is some normal kinds of physical proof, right off the bat blood, semen and salivation; with this examples they recognize it's human or creature (see reference section 1.1) in past yet now with this confirmation a scientist can portray right criminal with the assistance of DNA(See informative supplement 1.2). Second is, reports, to investigate penmanship, connection among paper and ink and some more angles. There are numerous physical proof like this which are; hazardous, drugs , filaments, fingerprinting, guns, glass, hair, impressions, paint, oil based commodity, plastic and different polymers, sequential number, vehicle light, wood and some more. This all physical proof has their bit of history (Richard S. 2007, page-70). To distinguish this all physical proof magnifying instrument have huge commitment. Magnifying instrument is a gadget which can grow and resolve the physical proof to distinguish truth behind wrongdoing. The vast majority of physical proof is recognize in wrongdoing research facility by magnifying instrument and it was the soonest strategy for scientific science so in a past filled with criminal examination it has significant commitment to illuminate numerous violations from light magnifying lens to new Morden electron magnifying lens. In the event that any development in incredible filtering, at that point Morden electronic magnifying instrument secure join new viewpoint in scientific science. Help of the magnifying instrument, crimino logical researchers examinations hair, fiber and paint (Richard S. 2007, page-180). As indicated by Locard (See informative supplement 1.1) physical proof misshaped among individuals and during the hour of wrongdoing. This physical proof is investigated in criminal research center to discover criminal. So hair is additionally a physical proof to depict criminal, with hair we can discover DNA of criminal (See informative supplement 1.2). At that point fiber can be hotspot for criminal recognizable proof. Finely paint, condition have uncountable thing whose surfaces are painted. It's not stunning to perceived paint. That is the reason it's most settled sort of physical proof by the measurable lab (Richard S. 2007, page-208 and 233). A few understudies of Orfila's returned nineteenth century to United Kingdom. They balanced out toxicology subject in their home college under power of legal medication. A toxicology administration given by college scientific doctor

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Avian Symbolism In The Awakening Essay Research free essay sample

Avian Symbolism In The Awakening Essay, Research Paper Avian Symbolism in The Awakening Kate Chopin methodicallly utilizes avian imagery in the novel The Awakening to represent and Enlighten Edna Pontellier. She starts the novel with the picture of a confined fledgling and all through the account different fowls and avian pictures show up stand foring opportunity, disappointment, and picks that Edna, the story? s boss character, must do. All through The Awakening Chopin utilizes flight and portrayals of feathered creatures to show the mental region of leader of her main character, Edna Pontellier. As the story starts we are right away acquaints with the significance of avian imagery. The main verbally expressed sentences of the novel, are strangely bounty, screeched by a parrot rather than a central character or some other human. # 8220 ; Allez vous-en! Allez vous-en! Sapristi! That? s good! # 8221 ; ( Chopin 3 ) are the words hollered by this crazed, confined flying creature. # 8220 ; Go off! Travel off! For paradise? s intrigue! # 8221 ; is the interlingual interpretation of this message into English. We will compose a custom article test on Avian Symbolism In The Awakening Essay Research or on the other hand any comparative theme explicitly for you Don't WasteYour Time Recruit WRITER Just 13.90/page This message speaks to the taboo and unthinkable thoughts racing through the head of Edna Pontellier during her post-arousing period. Edna aches to go forward her docile capacity as the adoring, compliant wedded lady and female parent that society powers on her. She yearns for something all the more energizing, something based on her ain personal preference and through and through freedom. These lines are resounded again right away front to her awakening. While the twins are one time again playing similar vocals on the piano the parrot shout, ? Allez vous-en! Sapristi! . ? This is the finishing up notice that the parrot transfers to Edna. Edna should hold tuned in to the parrot? s message and got away from her disillusioning life right away. However, she picked non to mind his notice and she was bound to stop her life so as to be free. In add-on to the parrot? s message, the picture of this threatening, shrilling flying creature is an image all by itself. For like the parrot, Edna is other than caught, non behind the bars of a coop, yet by the measures of society and the capacity that has been designated to her as a grown-up female. In a similar way that the parrot can non free himself of his coop, Edna can non ever to the full break liberated from the limitations that society has set on her as a grown-up female, wedded lady, and mother. In spite of the fact that she makes a witting endeavor to separate herself from the individuals who are keeping her dorsum and interference liberated from the limits that society has set upon her, she can neer to the full win in satisfying her craving to populate her ain life. The accompanying representation of the avian creative mind in The Awakening comes in the signifier of an attractive, juvenile smoothie named Alcee Arobin. In spite of the fact that on first impression he does non seem to be of or identified with winged animals, upon closer investigation we see that his last name syllabicated simple is checked # 8220 ; a # 8211 ; robin # 8221 ; . This feathered creature, ? the trailblazer of spring? , can wing unreservedly and live in close propinquity to universes. Arobin matches this depiction, for he, as his name infers, flies uninhibitedly through society and as his notoriety proposes gets close with numerous grown-up females. Valid, with # 8221 ; # 8230 ; unsophisticated genuineness he talked about what an insidious, unrestrained male youngster he had been. # 8221 ; ( 78 ) and to Edna he, # 8220 ; talked in a way that astounded her from the outset and carried ruby to her face # 8221 ; ( 80 ) . Besides, he has no declinations or concerns when he s eeks after a relationship with Edna, a wedded grown-up female. Alcee Arobin is a grown-up male who takes off through existence without any considerations by any means. He is known for H is pursues with grown-up females and is extremely direct when looking to secure what he needs. Unmistakably he ignores the impediments and? guidelines? that society has set up. Edna considers these to be as excellent and aches to hold them so she too much will have the option to wing uninhibitedly through existence without constraints and a coop to bolt her up inside. The guidance, given to Edna by the obscure Mademoiselle Reisz other than falls into the type of avian creative mind to represent a more profound importance for the novel? s boss character, Edna Pontellier. Mademoiselle Reisz says that, # 8220 ; The flying creature that would flood over the level of evident convention and inclination must hold solid wings. It is a pitiful display to see the mats wounded, depleted, fliting back to Earth # 8221 ; ( 85 ) . Despite the fact that Edna does neer genuinely comprehends the message behind Mademoiselle Reisz? s cautioning, the peruser understands that if Edna is resolved to hinder through the generalization of the compliant, little grown-up female of her clasp, and to intrude on free as herself in the public eye, she should hold quality so as to win. When Edna endeavors to determine her opportunity she moves into a little house around the bend from her bigger increasingly luxurious house in which she is caught by her family unit and the models that have been set upon her by the general public around her. Not coincidently she names the house the? pigeon house. ? Edna felt that, ? The pigeon house satisfied her. It at one time expected the close character of a spot, while she herself contributed it with an intrigue, which it reflected like a warm newness. There was with her a sentiment of holding plummeted in the cultural graduated table, with a comparing feeling of holding ascended in the strict. Each measure which she took toward mitigating herself from the obligations added to her quality and expansion as a man. She started to look with her ain eyes ; to see and to grok the more profound hints of life. No thirster would she say she was substance to? feed upon conclusion? at the point when her ain mind had welcomed her. ? This house was simply the large measure that she took toward self-satisfaction and felicity. It was by all accounts the solitary thing that was each really her ain. When again the picture of winged animals is utilized to free her and to represent her progress into another life. At the grievous choice the nearness of fowls are one time again extremely apparent. Preceding Edna? s implosion, she sees that, # 8220 ; a fowl with a messed up wing was pulverizing the air above, fliting, hovering debilitated down, down to the H2O # 8221 ; ( 116 ) . The hurt feathered creature being harmed and feeble dunks into the H2O epitomizing Edna? s inability to escape the limits and limitations in her capacity as a grown-up female. Edna in the blink of an eye follows the feathered creature into the deepnesss of the sea, stoping her life and freeing herself of the lunacy that was environing her. Along these lines, with steady notices to feathered creatures and flight, Kate Chopin? s caught character meets her destiny While she wouldn't fret the exhortation of the parrot, non prepared to follow the cold, irreverent method of Arobin and the work powers that she is sure will tail him, and just half-understanding the message of Mademoiselle Reisz, in her expire she in the long run turns into a free grown-up female. As she swam into the chilly sea H2O at the novel? s terminal, Edna Pontellier was # 8220 ; winging free # 8221 ; to her perish. 3cf Chopin, Kate. ? The Awakening. ? The Awakening and Other Stories. Hertfordshire: Wordsworth Editions Limited, 1995. 3? 117.

Friday, August 14, 2020

Is Sex Addiction Real, a Joke, or Just an Excuse

Is Sex Addiction Real, a Joke, or Just an Excuse Addiction Addictive Behaviors Sex Print Is Sex Addiction Real, a Joke, or Just an Excuse? By Elizabeth Hartney, BSc., MSc., MA, PhD Elizabeth Hartney, BSc, MSc, MA, PhD is a psychologist, professor, and Director of the Centre for Health Leadership and Research at Royal Roads University, Canada. Learn about our editorial policy Elizabeth Hartney, BSc., MSc., MA, PhD Medically reviewed by Medically reviewed by Steven Gans, MD on August 05, 2016 Steven Gans, MD is board-certified in psychiatry and is an active supervisor, teacher, and mentor at Massachusetts General Hospital. Learn about our Medical Review Board Steven Gans, MD Updated on May 25, 2019 More in Addiction Addictive Behaviors Sex Caffeine Internet Shopping Alcohol Use Drug Use Nicotine Use Coping and Recovery Sex addiction is a phenomenon we are hearing more and more about these days. Of all the addictions, sex addiction is most commonly the butt of jokes such as, If I was going to have an addiction, Id go for sex addiction. This raises the question, is sex addiction real? Many people dismiss sex addiction as a futile attempt to give legitimacy to what is simply irresponsible or greedy behavior. Others say that those people are unaware of or indifferent to the emotional pain that is frequently reported by those who consider themselves sex addicts and their loved ones. Arguments For Sex addiction triggers the brains reward system similar to other addictions Sex addicts often have other addictions as well Sex addictions can result in significant distress and impairments in functioning Arguments Against The sex addict label may be a moral judgment It may be used as an excuse for irresponsible sexual behavior Some believe addiction is chemical and not behavioral Background Sex addiction is not a new concept. Historical records dating back to ancient Rome and second century Greece report excessive sexuality, also known as hypersexuality or hyperaesthesia, and nymphomania or furor uterinum (uterine fury) in women. The modern concept of sex addiction was popularized by Dr. Patrick Carnes, author of Out of the Shadows: Understanding Sexual Addiction, and clinical director of sexual disorders services at a clinic in Arizona. Carnes and his colleagues have written several books on the subject, and tend to dominate popular understanding of sex addiction. However, others have also written extensively on the subject, including both researchers and people who believe they have suffered from sex addiction. Goodman argued that, although sex addiction shares features of both a compulsive and an impulse control disorder, it does not fit clearly into either category. He suggested that it is best described as an addiction and proposed diagnostic criteria that mirror the criteria for alcohol and substance dependence in the DSM 5, the reference manual for clinical diagnosis. Sex addiction was not included in the DSM 5, despite a number of conditions relating to limited sexuality â€" such as hypoactive sexual desire disorder and sexual aversion disorder â€" being included. This belies a bias that challenges the recognition of excessive sexual desire or expression as a problem. In other words, regularly experiencing sexual desire, physical sexual arousal, sexual relations, and achieving orgasm is considered the norm for both sexes, despite the fact that people who never experience difficulties at any of these stages of the sexual experience are in the minority. In general, having less sexual desire and activity is seen as a greater problem than having more sexual desire and activity. Over the past century, society has become increasingly permissive, with various aspects of sex and sexuality forming the basis for many types of entertainment. In recent decades, the pharmaceutical industry has supported this, with the development of drugs such as Viagra reinforcing the view that one is not living a complete and happy life without regular, non-problematic sex. In this climate, it is not surprising that so many people are becoming preoccupied with sex, and that those who might in the past have succumbed to other pleasures are developing compulsive sexual behaviors. How to Tell If You Are a Sex Addict Sex Addiction in the Headlines Sex addiction gained widespread attention in 2009 when actor David Duchovny â€" apparently happily married with a family â€" surprised the world by publicly admitting to being a sex addict and going into rehab. Toward the end of the year, many speculated whether or not golfer Tiger Woods was a sex addict after several women claimed to have had extra-marital affairs with him. The Role of the Internet The Internet has led to an unprecedented amount of porn being made available to anyone with a computer. Many people are bombarded with advertising for porn and commercial sex sites without even seeking them out. Many more people are being exposed to porn than ever before, including children and adolescents, and the nature of the web makes it difficult (if not impossible) to censor or place limits on the nature or amount of what is portrayed. In addition, it is easy to find and conduct an online affair, or online dating through sites such as tinder. At the same time, there is increasing concern about online porn addiction, a type of online sex addiction, which far outstrips the provision of support for people who feel their porn use is excessive, unmanageable, or causing them problems. Without sufficient specialized treatment services, relationships and families will continue to struggle, often in secret, with problems that they are not adequately equipped to deal with. The semi-underground and often corrupt nature of the sex industry has rendered it useless in providing research or treatment funding or other supports for people who are harmed by its output. This differs from the gambling industry, for example, which has funded research into treatment and services. Case for Sex Addiction Research indicates that the same reward system in the brain is activated in sex addiction as in a number of other addictions, including drug addictions. This supports the idea that sex addiction has a similar physiological and psychological process as other addictions. People with sex addiction often have concurrent substance and/or behavioral addiction problems, or crossover to other addictions when they attempt to overcome their sex addiction. Some authors argue that the existence of crossover addictions lends support to the legitimacy of sex addiction as a real addiction and that, if recognized, cross-over risk can be addressed directly to prevent it from happening after treatment for other addictions. Sex addiction causes a great deal of distress to those affected and their loved ones. Sexual desire and expression in people with sex addictions are commonly reported to be unmanageable and unpleasant, in stark contrast with the way that healthy sexual experiences are reported, which are typically described as fulfilling and satisfying both physically and emotionally. Recognizing sex addiction means these people can get the help they need to overcome their addiction, and eventually resume enjoyable sexual relationships. At present, few readily accessible addiction services provide help for people with sex addiction. Recognition of sex addiction can allow sex addiction treatment to be included in community addiction services. With specialized training in sex addiction being provided to addiction services staff, many more people could easily access help for sex addictions. Case Against Sex Addiction An important criticism of the sex addiction concept is that it does not provide enough differentiation between different conditions that might look like sex addiction, such as hypersexuality accompanied by mania or hypomania in bipolar disorder; character disorders; personality disorders; some forms of depression; OCD and PTSD. Critics of the concept of sex addiction argue that it has grown out of a cultural focus which associates sex with danger, powerlessness, and victimization, and is just a new way of making moral judgments about people who enjoy sex. As such, it can be used by people with a political and/or religious agenda to be negative about sex. There is also a risk that the label of sex addiction might pathologize normal sexual desire and behavior, making healthy people appear to have an illness that does not exist. The concept of sex addiction has also been criticized for being based on the idea that some sexual experiences, for example, intimate relationship sex, are better than others. These are argued to be moral rather than clinical arguments. At the other end of the spectrum, some people believe that a label like sex addiction can be used as an excuse for irresponsible sexual behavior, such as rape and child molestation. According to this criticism, people who have committed sex crimes can hide behind the label of sex addiction and avoid taking responsibility for their actions. These acts are deemed to be inexcusable, and the idea that a sex addiction diagnosis encourages pity and sympathy to people who do not deserve sympathy is also inexcusable. Finally, there is the argument leveled at all behavioral addictions â€" that addiction is about chemical dependency, and no matter how similar the patterns of behavior, addictions occur in relation to addictive substances and not behaviors. Where It Stands Sex addiction, or certainly excessive sexual behavior, is widely recognized in the media and in popular culture. The growth of the internet has lead to an unquantified escalation of cybersex addiction, which includes both addictions to pornography and addiction to online sexual interactions with partners, including sex workers. The psychiatric community has been hesitant to acknowledge excessive sexuality, in and of itself, as a disorder. In 1987, the Society for the Advancement of Sexual Health (SASH) was founded to provide up-to-date research to professional members who work with sex addictions, and to the public. They publish the journal  Sexual Addiction and Compulsivity: The Journal of Treatment and Prevention,  and hold a conference annually to disseminate research findings on sex addiction. How to Live With and Treat Behavioral Addiction

Sunday, May 24, 2020

Oc Eo Funan Culture Port City in Vietnam

Oc Eo, sometimes spelled Oc-Eo or Oc-à ¨o, was a large and thriving port city located in the Mekong Delta on the Gulf of Siam in what is today Vietnam. Established in the first century CE, Oc Eo was a critical node on the international trade system between Malay and China. The Romans knew of Oc Eo, and the geographer Claudius Ptolemy included it on his world map in 150 CE as the Kattigara Emporium. Funan Culture Oc Eo was part of the Funan culture, or Funan empire, a pre-Angkor society based on international trade and sophisticated agriculture built on an extensive network of canals. Trade goods flowing through Oc Eo came from Rome, India, and China. Surviving historical records about Funan and Oc Eo include the Funan cultures own records written in Sanskrit and those of a pair of 3rd century Wu Dynasty Chinese visitors. Kang Dai (Kang Tai) and Zhu Ying (Chu Ying) visited Funan about 245–250 AD, and in the Wou li (Annals of the Wu Kingdom) can be found their report. They described Funan as a sophisticated country of people living in houses raised on stilts and ruled by a king in a walled palace, who controlled trade and managed a successful taxation system. Origin Myth According to a myth reported in Funan and Angkor archives in several different versions, Funan was formed after a female ruler named Liu-ye led a raid against a visiting merchant ship. The attack was beaten off by the ships travelers, one of whom as a man named Kaundinya, from a country beyond the sea. Kaundinya is thought to have been a Brahman from India, and he married the local ruler and together, the two forged a new trading empire. Scholars say that at the time of its founding, the Mekong Delta had several settlements, each of which was independently run by a local chief. Oc Eos excavator, French archaeologist Louis Malleret, reported that in the early first century CE, the Funan coast was occupied by Malay fishing and hunting groups. Those groups were already building their own ships, and they would come to form a new international route focused on the Kra Isthmus. That route would enable them to control the transmission of Indian and Chinese goods back and forth across the region. Funan culture researchers debate how much the establishment of the Funan trade empire was indigenous to the Kra Isthmus or the Indian emigres, but there is no doubt that both elements were important. Importance of the Port of Oc Eo While Oc Eo was never a capital city—the Funan capitals were at Vyadhapura (now Ba Phnom) and Naravaranagara (Angkor Borei)—it served as the primary vital economic engine for the rulers. Between the 2nd and 7th century CE, Oc Eo was the stopover on the trade route between Malaya and China. It was a key manufacturing center for the southeast Asian market, trading in metals, pearls, and perfumes, as well as the cherished Indo-Pacific bead market. Agrarian success followed the establishment of trade, in order to create a surplus of rice for visiting sailors and merchants. Revenues from Oc Eo in the form of user fees for the ports facilities made their way to the royal treasury, and much of that was spent to upgrade the city and build the extensive canal system, making the land more fit for cultivation. The End of Oc Eo Oc Eo thrived for three centuries, but between 480 and 520 CE, there is documented inner conflict accompanying the establishment of an Indic religion. Most damaging, in the 6th century, the Chinese were in control of the maritime trade routes and they shifted that trade away from the Kra peninsula to the Malacca Straits, bypassing the Mekong. Within a short time, the Funan culture lost its main source of economic stability. Funan continued for a while, but the Khmers overran Oc-Eo in the late sixth or early 7th century, and the Angkor civilization was established in the region shortly thereafter. Archaeological Studies Archaeological investigations at Oc Eo have identified a city including an area of some 1,100 acres (450 hectares). The excavations revealed brick temple foundations and the wooden pilings built to raise the houses above the Mekongs frequent flooding. Inscriptions in Sanskrit found at Oc Eo detail Funan kings, including a reference to King Jayavarman who fought a great battle against an unnamed rival king and founded many sanctuaries dedicated to Vishnu. Excavations also have identified workshops for the production of jewelry, particularly Indo-Pacific beads, as well as workshops for casting metals. Seals bearing brief Sanskrit texts in the Indian Brahmi script, and trade items from Rome, India, and China attest to the economic basis of the city. Brick vaults have been found containing cremated human remains with rich grave goods, such as gold leaves bearing inscriptions and images of women, gold discs and rings, and a golden flower. Archaeological History Oc Eos existence was first noted by the pioneering French photographer/archaeologist Pierre Paris, who took aerial photographs of the region in the 1930s. Paris, one of the earliest of archaeologists inventing the science of  remote sensing, noted ancient canals crisscrossing the Mekong Delta, and the outline of a large rectangular city, later recognized as the ruins of Oc Eo. French archaeologist Louis Malleret excavated at Oc Eo in the 1940s, identifying the extensive water control system, monumental architecture, and a wide variety of international trade goods. In the 1970s, after a long hiatus forced by World War II and the Vietnam War, Vietnamese archaeologists based at the Social Science Institute at Ho Chi Minh city began new research in the Mekong Delta region. The recent investigation into the canals at Oc Eo suggest that they once connected the city with the agrarian capital of Angkor Borei, and may well have facilitated the remarkable trade network spoken of by the Wu emperors agents. Sources Bishop, Paul, David C. W. Sanderson, and Miriam T. Stark. OSL and Radiocarbon Dating of a Pre-Angkorian Canal in the Mekong Delta, Southern Cambodia. Journal of Archaeological Science 31.3 (2004): 319–36. Print.Bourdonneau, Eric. Rà ©habiliter Le Funan Óc Eo Ou La Premià ¨re Angkor. Bulletin de lÉcole franà §aise dExtrà ªme-Orient 94 (2007): 111–58. Print.Carter, Alison Kyra. The Production and Exchange of Glass and Stone Beads in Southeast Asia from 500 BCE to the Early Second Millennium CE: An Assessment of the Work of Peter Francis in Light of Recent Research. Archaeological Research in Asia 6 (2016): 16–29. Print.Hall, Kenneth R. The Indianization of Funan: An Economic History of Southeast Asias First State. Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 13.1 (1982): 81–106. Print.Higham, Charles. Encyclopedia of Archaeology. Ed. Pearsall, Deborah M. New York: Academic Press, 2008. 796–808. Print.Malleret, Louis. Les Dodà ©caà ¨dres Dor Du Si te Doc-Èo. Artibus Asiae 24.3/4 (1961): 343–50. Print.Sanderson, David C.W. , et al. Luminescence Dating of Canal Sediments from Angkor Borei, Mekong Delta, Southern Cambodia. Quaternary Geochronology 2 (2007): 322–29. Print.Sanderson, D. C. W., et al. Luminescence Dating of Anthropogenically Reset Canal Sediments from Angkor Borei, Mekong Delta, Cambodia. Quaternary Science Reviews 22.10–13 (2003): 1111–21. Print.Stark, Miriam T. Early Mainland Southeast Asian Landscapes in the First Millennium A.D. Annual Review of Anthropology 35.1 (2006): 407–32. Print.---. Pre-Angkor Earthenware Ceramics from Cambodias Mekong Delta. Udaya: Journal of Khmer Studies 2000.1 (2000): 69–89. Print.---. Pre-Angkorian Settlement Trends in Cambodia’s Mekong Delta and the Lower Mekong Archaeological Project. Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association 26 (2006): 98–109. Print.Stark, Miriam T., et al. Results of the 1995–1996 Archae ological Field Investigations at Angkor Borei, Cambodia. Asian Perspectives 38.1 (1999): 7–36. Print.Vickery, Michael. Funan Reviewed: Deconstructing the Ancients. Bulletin de lEcole franà §aise dExtrà ªme-Orient 90/91 (2003): 101–43. Print.

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Hamlet A Fragile Mind - 1429 Words

Hamlet with a fragile mind as it is with the death of his father and the the commitment made by both his mother and his uncle has been told of a ghost sighting outside of elsinore by the guards of Denmark. He is then asked to watch upon the night to see if it is or is not the ghost of his late father. With everything that has been going on in Hamlet’s life is he prepared to encounter such a paranormal event; or, is he not in the right state of mind to acknowledge and comprehend his late father’s ghost and the request he makes to Hamlet? The ghost sighting could even just be an allusion to the start of Hamlet’s madness. A winter night outside of the castle of elsinore and one of the late night shift guards, Bernardo, comes to relieve†¦show more content†¦The ghost then appears again on the same exact time that it had struck the night before. Horatio tries himself to speak to the ghost. The ghost remains silent as Horatio tries to talk to it. Horatio tries and tries and keeps failing to get a response back. This gives him the idea that if the ghost really is the ghost of King Hamlet it will have no problem speaking to itÅ› living son. He gives ther guards the okay that they should tell Hamlet about what they have been visited by the past two nights. The morning after Horatio and the guards see the ghost King Claudius gives a speech explaining his marriage to Gertrude, his brotherÅ› widow and mother of Hamlet. He speaks of how he is sorry for his brothers death and how he is going to take charge of the kingdom now that they are threatened by Prince Fortunbross. Now with Claudus in charge this means that Hamlet will not take thrown as planned to be the king. King Claudius seems to make that everything is okay with him and Hamlet. He acts now more like a father to Hamlet than his uncle now that he has married to his mother. With this in mind, Claudius wishes for Hamlet to return back to school where he had been studying before his father s death. His mother supports his new stepfather completely. As if it had been his mother s plan all along for this to happen. Hamlet decides to agree with them more or less to keep the piece but by his expression you can tell he isShow MoreRelated Loss of Innocence in Hamlet Essay1265 Words   |  6 PagesLoss of Innocence in Hamlet      Ã‚  Ã‚   Hamlet is a character that we love to read about and analyze. His character is so realistic, and he is so romantic and idealistic that it is hard not to like him. He is the typical young scholar facing the harsh reality of the real world. In this play, Hamlet has come to a time in his life where he has to see things as they really are. Hamlet is an initiation story. Mordecai Marcus states some initiations take their protagonists across a threshold ofRead MoreHamlet by Williams Shakespeare: The Women Hidden in the Shadows1154 Words   |  5 Pagesand bold actions. The females in Hamlet, Ophelia and Gertrude, both play roles with little importance, which demonstrates the lack of independence present; causing these characters to solely rely of the main characters of the play— the men. Although Shakespeare often wrote tragedies, it is no secret that he kept a place in his heart for romance. The female roles in the play are emphasized as weak woman if they lac k a companion, and therefore are helpless. Hamlet and Claudius, the main male charactersRead MoreThe Resisting Reader, By Judith Fetterley1391 Words   |  6 Pagesof the typical damsel in distress. The fragile young maiden who cannot fend for herself and must be told what to do by a strong, capable hero permeates both popular and classical literature. 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It accomplishes this through the use of allusions and metaphors and the development of multiple characters relationships with God throughout the play as they go through the challenges and experiences that are present within Hamlet. In Hamlet, the act of suicide is a motif, howeverRead More The Treatment of Women in Hamlet Essay1014 Words   |  5 PagesThe Treatment of Women in Hamlet   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The treatment of women in Hamlet is very troubling. The leading female characters, Queen Gertrude and Ophelia, are pawns or puppets for the men around them. Like chess pieces, they are moved about and influenced by the men they love with little say of their own; in fact, Shakespeare does not even develop their characters.    Of course, Hamlet is the whirlwind at the center of attention throughout the play, one who is incredibly difficult toRead MoreHamlet, By William Shakespeare1003 Words   |  5 PagesIn Shakespeare’s play Hamlet, women also remain within a confined space of their chastity that is dictated by men. Claudius’ manipulation of Gertrude defines her submissive character as a woman. The family in Ophelia’s life command her actions due to viewing the purpose of her existence to be innocent. Ophelia is also driven to madness at the mercy of Hamlet, taking her own life. Shakespeare uses the few women in Hamlet, who are portrayed as sinful and weak-willed by being manipulated by men, toRead MoreThe Mind of the Mad: Analysis of Hamlet1552 Words   |  7 PagesThe Mind of The Mad What is it to be mad? Is it related to something of biological background? Or is it to do with the complex breakdown of one’s emotions? Or is it both? These questions are important to keep in mind when understanding whether Hamlet is truly mad or feigning madness as part of his ‘plan’ in which Shakespeare builds up throughout the play. This relates to the second aspect which must also be looked at when comprehending the fictional play Hamlet. This aspect is the certain ‘key’Read MoreThe Relationship Between The Psychological Portraits Of Hamlet And Claudius892 Words   |  4 Pages Chandula Perera Professor Alan Nadler English 201 15 May 2015 Interrelation between the Psychological Portraits of Hamlet and Claudius While investigating for clues to relate the psychological facts between these two huge personalities in Shakespeare’s novel Hamlet, I found some valuable information that will help to summarize the thesis of this topic. â€Å"Hamlet focuses on the complications arising from love, death, and betrayal, without offering the audience a decisive and positive resolution to

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Effects of Tcb on the Economy of Bangladesh Free Essays

string(33) " the other one is imported ones\." I would like to thank our honorable teacher for arranging such a good session and allowing me to take this topic for term paper. His special guidance has made it successful to prepare this document. I would like to convey my special gratitude to the authority of the Department of Business Studies for designing this course outline. We will write a custom essay sample on Effects of Tcb on the Economy of Bangladesh or any similar topic only for you Order Now Index Introduction1 Objectives1 What is TCB1 Economic Condition of Consumers2 Present Price Situation of Consumer Goods Market3 Reasons of Price Hike3 International Price Change3 Price Rise of Oil (Fuel)4 Stockiet’s Activity4 Delay in Supply Channel5Special Events5 Cumulative Action5 Types of Price Change5 One Shot Price Change6 Continuous Price Change6 Special Events6 Activities of TCB6 OMS (Open Market Sale)6 Distribution through Selected Dealers7 Monitoring Market Price7 Procurement of Essential Goods7 From International Market7 From Local Market8 Effects of TCB on Our Economy8 Positive Effects8 Negative Effects9 Findings and Recommendations9 Conclusion9 Introduction Trading Corporation of Bangladesh, which is abbreviated as TCB, came into existence in the after-war situation of Bangladesh after liberation in the year of 1972.At that time market of Bangladesh was suffering from lack of supply of essential goods and industrial raw materials because of unstable situation. Pe ople of Bangladesh were not ready to invest for importing such goods and the Government policies had not yet been formulated in regards of export-import business. So the then government of Bangladesh had to intervene the consumer goods market as well as the industrial raw materials market. It was an aid to nurture the newborn economy of Bangladesh so that internal production industries could boost up and price of consumable goods would not go beyond reach of general people.As the supply chain was not yet built TCH played important role to make essential goods easily available to the consumers at reasonable price. Still TCB is playing such role in Bangladesh to establish a channel through which goods can be easily made available to the consumers in awkward situations. Objectives ? To understand the role of TCB in consumer goods market. ? To investigate possible reasons of price hike in the consumer goods market. ? To investigate impacts of TCB both positive and negative on consumer goods market. What is TCBTCB, the national trading house under the Ministry of Commerce of the Government of the Peoples Republic of Bangladesh, is an autonomous body headed by a chairman and the administration of this trading house lies on the Board of Directors, which comprises two Directors. All of these members are deputed from the BCS cadre officers’ pool. Though TCB was established in the backdrop of all round scarcities of essential consumer items and industrial raw materials after the liberation of Bangladesh now it works with some extension of role. TCB is run commercially and sometimes intervening the market during sky rocketing of price of essential commodities or crisis period or during some special events (like the holy Ramadan or disaster) with a view to keeping it within the reach of general mass. Principal roles played by TCB are as given below. ? To carry on business of imports and exports in accordance with the policy of the Government. ? To arrange for the sale and distribution of the imported/locally procured goods and to appoint dealers etc. , for this purpose as per Government directives. Monitoring of prices of essential commodities in the local market vis-a-prices in the international market. ? Market intervention during price hike in the local market. ? To do all other acts and things connected with or ancillary thereto. Economic Condition of Consumers Bangladesh is a developing country. It’s economy is mainly based on the agricultural industry though there is some good advancements in the RMG sector. Most of the people of urban areas are depended on jobs (government or private) with limited income. Majority of the urban population fall in the middle class group having an average monthly earnings of Tk. 8000 to Tk. 0000. This is merely enough to buy their daily needs. Rural people depend on agricultural works. Those who work in other’s land are very poor in this context. Very few percentage of the total population of Bangladesh are solvent. Therefore a small change in the price in the consumer goods market creates big impact on the whole economy. Even it was stated that the nation was suffering from malnutrition in recent past. Present Price Situation of Consumer Goods Market Bangladesh is the part of the global economy; as such they have to face the danger of the global financial crisis, which is a macro and micro impact all over the world. In the latter part of the 2008, the global financial crisis has been spreading out all over the globe which leads to danger not only for USA and European countries, but to other parts of the world. Excessive liberalization, non-compliance of corporate governance, and through financial engineering, the market was manipulated that was the causative factors behind the crisis. Presently Consumer Goods Market of Bangladesh is suffering from price hike causing unbearable sufferings to poor and ultra-poor people including the middle class households.Most of the things costs double the price compared to the price of 4/5 years back. People had to curtail their expenditures even in the case of education, medication and daily foods. Reasons of Price Hike There are various reasons behind price hike. Some of the reasons may be: International Price Change Any price change in the international market creates impacts on the local market. An increase in the price of edible oil in the international market causes an increase in our local market too. Mostly price of those goods, which are imported from foreign markets, are vulnerable to international price.Price of some goods, which are not imported directly, but their variations are imported, also rise due to price rise in the international market. For example think about onion. There are two types of onions in the market, one is our local product and the other one is imported ones. You read "Effects of Tcb on the Economy of Bangladesh" in category "Papers" If the price of the imported onions rise price of local onions would also rise. The economy of Bangladesh faces another problem. When price rises in the international market, it is observed that in the domestic market price rises sharply. But when price falls in the international market its responds very slowly in the domestic market.We know that at the time of opening of the Letter of Credit (L//C), the price which is available in the international market, it will continue and as such all on a sudden it may not be possible to reduce. But the rate of decrease of the price occurs at a far lower speed than what is actually desired. Price Rise of Oil (Fuel) Price of fuel is one major factor on which price of consumable goods depends. Fuel price has multiple effect on price of consumable goods. For example fuel is required for production, for transportation, for retailing, etc. Even electricity is somewhat dependent of fuel price.During load shedding some retailers, dealers who work in urban areas, use diesel generators to produce electricity for their temporary use. If oil price rise more expense will incur. As a result the retailer, the dealers will think of increasing price of goods what they sell to keep their earnings fixed. Stockiet’s Activity In cases there are possibilities of price going high some stockiest buy more goods to make a handsome stock thinking that they would sell it at higher price. This causes shortage or scarcity of that good that time. As a result price of that good goes high. Sometimes dishonest business men create syndicate and stocks whole of a particular market. As a result an artificial scarcity of that good arise which eventually creates price rise. Delay in Supply Channel Sometimes it happens that price of imported goods has fallen in the international market but price in local market is not falling. Normally it is because the system delay in the channel between the importers and the retailers. Sometimes it is done intentionally to earn more money. Special Events Price rocketing of dal, onion, brinzal, rice, sugar, and all other food items is a common scenario in every Ramadan in our country.During Ramadan demand of these items increase so sharply that supply cannot meet that. As a result price increases sharply according to the general principle of the economy. Besides these mentality of our people is also set like that. We always get ready to buy things at higher price during Ramadan. Whatever the price of brinzel is, it is sold out. Even the poorest of our population keep some extra budget for that. This is a regular phenomenon in our country. The government of Bangladesh tries to keep the price of things within some specific range but hardly they can do. Cumulative ActionPrice increase has cumulative effects on each other. If price of food increases food sellers earn more money. But what about the others who only buy foods. They try to increase their income. Landlords increase their rent, transport owners try to earn more by increasing fare, professionals increase their fees, service sellers increase their price of service, etc. This way price in every micro level increases which eventually increases the price level. Types of Price Change Our economy is vulnerable to two types of price changes. Those are one shot increase and the other one is continuous increase.One Shot Price Change Price may increase for once and stops at that position for a measurable period of time. This is one shot increment. One shot price increase does not create the inflation. It only increases the price level for once. This thing normally happens in our country when a new pay scale is declared by the government. Price of everything rises even before declaration, when the government has decided to declare. Continuous Price Change Price may increase continuously for a measurable period of time. This type of price increase causes inflation. In recent past our economy was experiencing such phenomenon.Not only our economy the world economy experienced the continuous price change. Currently price is some what stable though 2 or 3 times higher that that in the year of 2000. Special Events Sometimes price goes high for some special events. For example during the Ramadan price of essential goods and food items go extremely high because sudden increase of demand of those items in the market. Incase of disasters price of essential goods may also increase. But generally price increases unexpectedly though predictable in every Ramadan. This has become normal phenomenon in our country.Activities of TCB TCB, being the national trading house of Bangladesh played and plays vital role during price hike situation of Bangladesh. OMS (Open Market Sale) Open Market Sale is an activity taken by the government of Bangladesh during price rocketing situation. In this program TCB sells rice, onion, sugar and other essential goods in the open market for reasonable price. This programs helps people to get things within their purchasing capacity. Distribution through Selected Dealers TCB collects goods from various sources like purchases from open market or from international market.Then distributes those goods in remote areas other than urban areas through dealers. Generally rice, flour, sugar, etc are sold through the dealers among the mass people at rational prices. Monitoring Market Price TCB always monitors the market situation and reports the government of the Bangladesh regarding the price and other conditions of the market like supply of specific goods. TCB also sets price of the essential goods at which those should be retailed in different markets and also monitors whether those are sold at the specified prices. This activity helps mass people to get essential goods at normal prices.Procurement of Essential Goods From International Market TCB played a vital significant role in the Import Trade during the initial years after liberation. By importing a good number of essential consumer goods and industrial raw materials, it stabilized the prices in the market, as well as provided a great relief to the general consumers and small industrial units by supplying goods at reasonable prices. During the period of 1972-77 TCB used to import as many as 70 commodities such as Cement, Milk Food, C. I. Sheet, Drugs Medicine, Textile, Yarn, Soda Ash, Auto Rickshaw, Salt, Sugar, Onion, M. S Billets, Al. Ingot, Pig-Iron,Zinc Ingot, Arms Cartridges, Timber etc. But due to introduction of free market economy, TCB’s role in the field of import has become very limited. As a result, functions and activities of TCB have largely been squeezed. Since fair trade has yet to be started, TCB’s role is significant to control the market. In fact, TCB’s interventionist role can never be denied. Whenever there has been any shortfall in the supply of any essential consumer goods in the market, TCB has, on the advice of the Government, made arrangement for emergency import of the said items in order to ensure adequate supply and to stabilize the market price.During 2005-06, in view of unusual price situation of some essential commodities in the local market, TCB imported Red Lentils procured onion gram(Chhola) from local market sugar from BSFIC for direct sale at a fair price From Local Market TCB also collects food grains, sola, dal, sugar, lentils, etc from local market during the harvesting seasons and warehouses them accordingly. In case of scarcity of such goods TCB sells them to end consumers through OMS or selected dealers. Effects of TC B on Our Economy Positive Effects ? In case of price rocketing situation it relieves general consumers from sufferings. They get things through OMS or selected dealers of TCB very easily at their hands. It helps to break syndicates present in the market. ? When importers cannot take initiatives of importing bulk amount of essential goods fearing loss in future the government can take initiatives for importing those goods. ? TCB distributes essential goods through dealers, who are supposed to report to the government through proper channel. Therefore it creates a good channel of distribution of consumer goods among the end users. ? TCB always monitors the market and informs the government.This helps the government to take decision whether the market should be regulated or not. Negative Effects ? Free market economy concept does not allow intervention of external affairs into the market. ? Sometimes perfect competition is hampered due to the presence of the activity of TCB. ? Some dishonest dealers warehouse goods, which are distributed through them and it creates worst effect in the market. Findings and Recommendations Though in the present free market economy concept it is not expected that the government of a country would intervene the consumer goods market, sometimes it is needed for the betterness of mass people.But TCB should operate in a regulated way. It should not intervene into every nook and corner of the market. At the same time it should be noted that TCB is not the only way to combat the price hike. Some other things like circulation of black money in the market should be regulated. Stockiest should be prevented from warehousing most essential goods for so long time for ill motives. Conclusion When some one is unable to walk by himself he can be aided by some external tools. Our economy is not so robust.It is vulnerable to so many affairs: international market, local syndicate, corruption in everywhere, lack of stable capital, political instability, majority of our people lie under poverty level, etc. In this situation when market cannot regulate itself the government can take initiatives. This task is some how done by the TCB. It purchases goods from local markets as well as from foreign markets and distributes those essential goods in the awkward situation. It helps people to get things in their reach. However its scope should be specified and its limit should be drawn. Proper guidance of its operation may result in benefits. How to cite Effects of Tcb on the Economy of Bangladesh, Papers

Sunday, May 3, 2020

Monopolies - Duopoly - and Oligopolies in Australia - myassignmenthelp

Question: Discuss about theMonopolies,Duopoly, and Oligopolies in Australia. Answer: Introduce The firms which are operating in the highly concentrated markets are considered as more profitable2. But if the firms operating are the monopoly, they are likely to showcase better results. As per the research studies, it has documented that the firms operating with the monopolistic powers within the Australia exercise a better position in terms of the investment in the research and innovation. The Australian monopoly companies are also able to better develop as compare to the smaller competitors. This Journal was published by the Centre for International Finance and Regulation8. It showed that the monopolies which have one player dominating the market are able to succeed in the Australia. Likewise, the duopolies which have two players operating and the oligopolies which have a small number of producers and sellers are able to perform better in the concentrated market of Australia in comparison to the competitors operating in the markets. The Economic Analysis The Australian market has the diverse market of opportunities. But, in order the drive success for the national economy it is defined with the structure of its markets6. There are different types of markets and each of them has different characteristics while operating in the market. The main market structures are divided into-: 1) Perfect Competition-: the perfection competition market is defined on the basis of the many buyers and the sellers. As per the classical theory, it defines and classifies perfection competition with infinite buyers and sellers. Due to the multiple buyers and sellers operating, it is difficult for the one particular firm which influences the market, in terms of demand and pricing. Apart from the many buyers and sellers, they are selling identical products with no particular differentiation. Firms are price takers and all the firms co-exist with the small market share. 2Australian Bureau of Statistics, Queensland Office,The Economic Status of Migrants in Australia,Canberra, Australian Govt. Pub. Service, 2011, p. 320. 6A.Kring, et al.,Abnormal Psychology,11thedn., Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley Sons, 2010, p. 40. 9The Cambridge Companion to Postmodernism,Cambridge, U.K., Cambridge University Press, 2004, p. 70. 2) Monopoly-: The monopoly market has opposite characteristics of the perfect competition. In a pure monopoly, there exists only one particular producer of the good and services7. There is no substitute for the product. Due to this, the single producer and seller are able to dominate the market and influence the pricing. There is low competition within the firms and profits are derived on the basis of the consumers willingness to purchase the particular product at the producer price. This type of market structure is possible due to the selling of the patents products and services, lack of close substitutes and on account of the high barriers. 3) Oligopoly -: Oligopoly market exists with the few producers that are able to dominate the market in terms of pricing, products, and production5. They are selling similar products but are slightly differentiable. The difference in between the monopoly and the oligopoly is that they do not have the same pricing power as of the monopolists. Due to the government regulation, the oligopolies can collude and can set prices in a similar monopolist way. 4) Monopolistic Competition-: It is a combination of the monopoly and of the perfect competition. There are many buyers and sellers, but the sellers are producing differentiable types of similar products. Due to this, in the monopolistic competition market structure, they are able to charge greater prices. 5) Monopsony-: The buyers can also differentiate the market system. In this type of market, there is a single buyer for the product and services due to which they can influence the pricing4. 7M.J. Sargent, P. Nilan, and G. Winter,The New Sociology for Australians,4th edn., Melbourne, Longman Australia, 2007, p. 140. 5J.M. Foley (ed.),A Companion To Ancient Epic,Oxford, Wiley-Blackwell, 2009, pp. 25-26. 4A. Blackledge and A. Creese,Multilingualism: a Critical Perspective,London, Continuum, 2010, p. 10. Due to the global competition and looking at the Australian economy, the monopoly, duopoly and the oligopoly are able to thrive in the market as they are able to fix either the pricing or the quantity of supply. Due to the low degree of competition within the Australian market, along with the pricing strategies and with the high profit, a performance of the firm, the monopolistic, oligopoly, and the duopoly are able to reap benefits from the market. Viewpoint As per my viewpoint and analysis, the monopoly market structure along with duopoly and the oligopoly can fairly exist in the Australian market. Due to the lower government regulation, lower degree of competition and numerous buyers the monopoly market framework can work profitably. For the key players the actions which are recommended are the-: As it is difficult to differentiate in between the market and the firm which co-exist within a given framework, the monopolists need to identify a specific strategy either to exercise their power on pricing or with the quantities of supplies. The products and services provided should not have close substitutes and the monopolists can create high barriers to entry by reaping economies of scale. The other ways are by creating patent licensing, technology superiority, and control of the essential and rare resource while selling in the market. As a price maker, it does not mean the monopolist can control both the price and quantity of supplies. Either fix the supply or dominate the market with the pricing factor. The other variable will be dependent on the given fixed variable which will exist due to the market forces. For the policy makers the viewpoint will be-: They can also formulate policies by regulating prices3. 3J. Baker, 'The Place of Science and Technology in the Wise Management of the Great Barrier Reef', in E. Wolanski (ed.), The monopolist power can be through government regulation. The policy makers can utilize the use of the competition laws, in order to make industry competitive. If it's foreseen any market failures due the monopoly market structure is small with the comparison to an imperfection of policies, then no action is deemed. For the Oligopolies, the policy makers can try their best to avoid cartel and collusion formation and prosecute them under the competition laws. Conclusion The Australian economy is the free and liberalized economy with low prevalent market imperfection and government regulation. Due to this, the monopoly, oligopoly and duopoly framework can easily exist with the Australian market structure which can prove to be profitable1. Due to the fair degree of competition and pricing strategies the monopolist market structure can easily dominate the market. The chances for the firms operating with the perfect competition market have low profitability and sustainability due to the stiff competition faced, as they are selling identical products. To expand and explore the Australian market, the monopoly type of market structure can boom, due to the sharing of large market share and high profitability. 1Y. Aralawa,Zen Painting, trans. J. Bester, Tokyo, Kodansha International,2010, p. 75 References Arakawa, Y.,Zen Painting, trans. J. Bester,Tokyo, Kodansha International, 2010. Australian Bureau of Statistics, Queensland Office,The Economic Status of Migrants in Australia,Canberra, Australian Govt. Pub. Service, 2011. Baker, J., 'The Place of Science and Technology in the Wise Management of the Great Barrier Reef', inE.Wolanski,(ed.),Oceanographic Processes of Coral Reefs: Physical and Biological Links in the Great Barrier Reef,Boca Raton, CRC Press, 2013, pp. 14-20. Blackledge, A.and A. Creese,Multilingualism: a Critical Perspective,London, Continuum, 2010. Foley, J.M. (ed.),A Companion To Ancient Epic,Oxford, Wiley-Blackwell, 2009. Kring, A.et al., Abnormal Psychology,11th edn., Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley Sons, 2010. Sargent, M.J., P. Nilan and G. Winter,The New Sociology for Australians,4th edn., Melbourne, Longman Australia, 2007. The Cambridge Companion to Postmodernism,Cambridge, U.K., Cambridge University Press, 2004.